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By Rooms on 5-2-2009 20:53 last edited

nonionic detergent A detergent that does not ionize in
nonresilient flooring Flooring materials that do not
‘‘give’’ to any degree underfoot. Examples include
concrete, ceramic tile, epoxy, marble, terrazzo, and
all other stone floors.
nosocomial infection An infection that results from a
stay in a hospital and the exposure to germs present
in that hospital.
occupancy forecast Short-range estimate of guestroom
occupancy expected over a given period of time, such
as a day, a week, or other accounting period of usually
not more than 90 days.
occupancy type Manner in which a registered guest or
group of guests will occupy a room; single occupancy
is one person only to a room; double occupancy is two
people to a room, multiple occupancy is more than two
people to a room.
occupied (OCC) The status of a guestroom indicating
that a guest or guests are in residence; the presence of
luggage in the room indicating the probable presence
of a registered guest.
odor-pair neutralization Molecules of gas from chemical
stimulate receptor cells deep inside the nose that
cancel out unpleasant odors being caused by other
gas molecules.
once-around method Method of cleaning a guestroom
whereby unnecessary steps and transportation of
supplies and equipment are eliminated or minimized.
on-change See checkout.
one par of linen Quantity of linen required to meet certain
requirements; usually the total amount required
to cover beds and to handle bath needs in all guestrooms.
one-stroke solution Dilution ratio of an all-purpose cleaner
that provides a proper cleaning agent for certain
operations in approximately one wipe; for example,
4:1 dilution ratio of a specific cleaning agent is used
to sanitize a toilet in one wiping stroke. See also
three-stroke solution.
on-line Computer equipment (input and output devices
and the central processing unit) that is electronically
connected and ready to operate at all
times on demand of an operator; as opposed to
off-line equipment, which requires the mechanical
or time-scheduled entry of data into the system.
on-premises laundry Also called the in-house laundry. A
laundry that is built, owned, or operated by the user
of the linens processed; usually on the same premises
where linens will be used, but facilitymay be detached.
on-scene commander Member of local fire or police
protection organization or other technically competent
municipal official having authority over local
law or police services who takes charge at scenes of
on-the-job training (OJT) Training technique whereby
one or more trainees are shown what to do on the
job. Employees practice the skill and are observed by
the instructor, who then critiques the work. When
only one trainee receives instruction at a time, the
technique is referred to as the coach-pupil method of
opening the house A daily operational planning procedure
whereby rooms requiring service are assigned to
section housekeepers specifically scheduled to work that
day. Procedure becomes more or less complicated
depending on occupancy levels and number of guestrooms
that must be reassigned as pickup rooms. This
is the first of several morning activities performed each
day and should be completed before workers arrive
for work.
open section A specific room section created for the
regular assignment to a section housekeeper for cleaning,
but, due to lack of occupancy, has no section housekeeper
assigned. Occupied rooms in the open section must
be reassigned as pickup rooms to a section housekeeper on
that day.
operating budget A financial statement of a plan giving
an estimate of operating revenues, expenses, and
profit (or loss) expected for a given period of time.
See also budgeting; capital expenditure budget.
operating cost Expenses associated with generating
revenues. See operating statement; operating budget.
operating statement Periodic financial report indicating
actual performance (results) as compared with
budgeted performance; reports revenues, expenses,
and profit (or loss) over a given period of time; may
also report utilization of other assets such as labor,
man-hours, and material.
operational budget cycle Chronological expression of
time involving budget preparation, activation, and
operation. Budget cycles usually start three to six
months before the beginning of the fiscal year. They
include expectations of annual sales revenues and
planned utilization of salaries, wages, and controllable
supplies. Time is then allowed for review and critique
of the new budget. Finally, budget approval precedes
the beginning of the new budget year. As the year
proceeds, plans are made to start the next budget
operational budget for the housekeeping department
Housekeeping segment of the total operational budget
of a hotel or hospital. In hotels, that portion
of the operating budget dealing with guestroom revenue,
housekeeping department salaries and wages,
employee costs, and controllable costs related to the
servicing of guestrooms and public areas of a hotel.
organic A substance or a product of substances of plant
or animal origin. Chemically, organic compounds
contain carbon ‘‘r’’ strings of molecules attached to
one or more hydrogen molecules.
By Rooms on 5-2-2009 20:53 last edited

organizing Performing certain activities that arrange
and relate people and work for effective accomplishment
of objectives; See also management sequential
orienting new employees Familiarizing new employees
with their situation and surroundings. An activity of
osmological Relating to soils of organic or inorganic
matter that emit unpleasant odors.
out of order (room) (OOO) Designation assigned to a
guestroom that for some mechanical or repair reason
cannot be occupied by a guest. Authority for such
designation usually rests with the chief engineer.
output (computer) Data generated by a computer as a
result of input data being fed into a central processing
unit, which in turn responds to the direction of a
computer program.
outsourcing Contracting with outside firms to provide
services that may have originally been performed by
in-house employees.
padding A layer of material placed under carpet to
increase resiliency. It can be made from a number of
natural and synthetic materials.
panic emotion Uncontrolled psychological departure
from responsible action or behavior when experiencing
fear or sudden widespread fright as a result of
not knowing what to do in an emergency situation.
par A standard, specific, or normal level of stock.
parlor (P) Sitting room usually having hidden sleep
equipment; may be set up for a small meeting or
hospitality suite.
participative management Act of involving workers in
discussions regarding decisions that ultimately affect
the workers.
part-time employee In the hotel industry, one who
regularly commits to and is scheduled to work by
the company 29 hours or less per week. See also
steady extra; regular employee; temporary employee; pool
passive-aggressive behavior An obstructionist resistance
to following authoritative instructions in personal
or occupational situations. It can be manifested
as procrastination, stubbornness, sullenness, and
pathogenic Disease-causing, disease-producing.
pathogenic microorganisms Disease-causing bacteria
and viruses.
pay increases Stepped increments of pay normally
awarded to an employee for satisfactory performance
during specified time periods, for outstanding performance,
or in recognition of cost-of-living increases.
pay scale A published table of compensation offered
for jobs performed; usually indicates increments of
pay based on seniority and minimum and maximum
compensation to be offered for each job. Usually
developed by personnel departments as a result of
wage surveys of the surrounding area, degree of
difficulty of jobs surveyed, availability of labor markets,
and company policies.
percale A cotton cloth that is closely woven so as to give
a smooth finish.
performance analysis Breaking apart a job into its
various elements of work to evaluate how the elements
affect each other.
performance appraisal Formal act of notifying employees
about the observed quality of their performance.
May be oral but is usually written and becomes an
official part of the employee’s record.
performance standards Conditions that will exist when
key duties are done well. An activity of controlling .
period Segment of time in which performance will
be demonstrated and measured against a plan or
period linen inventory count record Log or similar
record of all items of linen counted as reported
on linen count sheets during period. See also inventory;
inventory control; inventory record book.
period statements Financial statements book of an operational
nature covering a set period of time; indicating
revenue, expenses, and control profit (or loss); usually
show comparisons to budget for the same period;
require critique of out-of-control elements. See also
operating statement.
personal development of managers Responsibility of
managers to develop subordinates or juniormanagers
for future assignments.
personal plan Document prepared by a manager indicating
how he or she intends to carry out assigned
responsibilities and meet commitments or stated
Personnel Action Form (PAF) Standardized document
used for recording details about an employee such
as name, address, job classification, rate of pay, and
record of past performance with the company for
company reference; may be computerized.
petroleum naphtha solvents Fabric cleaners and spot
removers made from distilled petroleum or coal tar
phenolic compounds Any one of a series of aromatic
hydroxyl derivatives of benzene, of which carbolic
acid is the first member.
photochemical reaction A reaction of certain pollutants
in the atmosphere that produces ozone, which is a
lung irritant and a component of smog .
physical agents Nonchemical agents that will affect the
growth of bacteria or will destroy it. Examples of
nonchemical agents are sunlight, temperature, heat,
moisture, and pressure.
physical linen inventory Actual count or supply of
various items of linen on hand.
By Rooms on 5-2-2009 20:53 last edited

pickup room Occupied room in an open section that must
be assigned to a section housekeeper in a nearby section
for servicing.
pile The threads of yarn found on the surface of a rug.
The nap. Pile density and weight are indications of
pile warp Yarn threads that run lengthwise in a towel
that make the terry loops on both sides of the towel.
These are normally 100 percent cotton fibers.
planning Performing certain activities that predetermine
a course of action; See also management
sequential functions.
plies Strands of yarn that comprise a thread.
p.m. report A document used for noting the status of
guestrooms in a room section in the late afternoon,
usually about 3:00 p.m. Report forms are developed
daily for every section in the hotel to indicate whether
rooms are occupied (OCC), ready (R), or checkouts (C/O).
p.m. reports form the basis of the housekeeper’s report.
p.m. room check Visual inspection of every guestroom in
a hotel to determine observed status of rooms. Results
of the room check are recorded on the p.m. report.
polygraph examination Inconclusive examination of a
person that may give indications as to the honesty or
dishonesty of that person. Federal law forbids its use
for preemployment testing in all but a few occupations
and has effectively limited its use to but a handful of
other applications.
polypropylene A lightweight resin. It is used for making
carpet backing, molded plastics, and insulation.
polyurethane A strong plastic resin that resists fire, acids,
and decay. It is used in a number of applications,
including insulation, a substitute for foam rubber,
and a substitute for varnish.
pool employee or employment Classification of employee
or employment whereby the worker is called in to
work when needed. No regular schedule of work is
expected or promised.
poor performance Appraisal indicating that quality
of performance is less than satisfactory but not
portion control Specifying and providing to workers
specific quantities of chemicals, cleaning solutions,
or other measurable agents used in housekeeping
operations. Some cleaning agents are prepackaged in
measured proportions and may be issued to section
housekeepers for cleaning tasks.
position descriptions Similar to job descriptions but
written for management positions. Documents that set
forth the manager’s basic function, scope of activities,
specific responsibilities, and reporting relationships;
also indicates where the manager should apply his or
her time. See also job descriptions.
preopening budget Plan for the use of certain fixed and
variable cost items before opening a hotel or hospital.
See also preopening cost or expense.
preopening cost or expense Those costs or expenses
normally associated with opening a hotel or hospital
(before revenue generation commences). Such costs
are usually amortized over a several-year period after
operation has begun. May include the cost of certain
fixed assets as well as preoperating costs.
primary backing The surface into which carpet fibers are
stitched in a tufted carpet. The backing is normally
made from polypropylene.
probationary period of employment Usually the first
three or four months of employment when training is
being conducted and suitability for full-time employment
is being established. A period of employment
before the inauguration of all employment rights and
problem solving Act of seeking solutions to professional
and personal problems. The end result of analyzing
problem-solving temperament The personal and psychological
emotion and attitude displayed by a manager
when involved in problem solving .
processor (computer) Also known a central processing unit
productivity The ability to produce. Management theory
is concerned with increasing productivity.
pro forma An imaginary balance sheet or system of
accounts containing figures for illustrative purposes;
usually provides retroactive indications of how an
operation will run.
program (computer) The electronic intelligence stored
in a computer that controls the processing of data.
See also software program.
programming Scheduling of a group of tasks in a
desired order. An activity of planning. Also, the act of
developing a software program for a computer.
progressing work Act of keeping track of work completed
by a section housekeeper during the housekeeping
project Element of work to be performed that is not
routine or part of a daily routine.
property inspection program Formalized program for
the inspection of an entire hotel or hospital property.
See also inspection program; zone inspection
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (sue-doe-MOAN-us air-o-gin-
O-sa) Gram negative. Very resistant to disinfectants.
A major problem in public restrooms. Disease is more
prevalent in women. Bacteria will grow in standing
public area housekeeper One who works in public areas
as opposed to the guestroom portion of the hotel.
public areas Physical areas of a hotel where the general
public may congregate or walk; includes lobby area,
public sitting area, public restrooms, and public
thoroughfare. Does not include guestrooms or the
guestroom portion of the facility.
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public areas department A department in a large
hotel responsible for the cleaning of all public areas
(e.g., pools, lobbies, convention centers, casinos,
purchasing Management function of researching and
ordering items of value used in the production of revenue.
Some companies have purchasing agents who do
all purchasing; others require department managers
to perform purchasing functions for their departments,
allowing for better departmental accountability
for expenditures.
purchasing agent Person who performs the purchasing
function for all departments within an organization.
See also purchasing .
purify the room rack Correcting the front desk room
rack to reflect the correct status of all guestrooms;
usually done about 4:30 p.m. each day by reference to
the housekeeper’s report.
quality circle Group of people consisting of managers,
supervisors, and workers, all having an equal responsibility
for quality of work or production output.
quaternary ammonium compounds Any derivative of
ammonium in which the four hydrogen atoms
have been replaced by organic radicals. Quaternary
ammonium compounds are used as disinfectants and
in various medicines.
ready or ready to rent (R) Status of a guestroom
indicating that the room is vacant and has been
serviced for occupancy. See also checkout; occupied.
reagents A group of testing solutions used to identify
certain bacteria and their properties. Such tests can
help determine what chemicals should be used to kill
certain bacteria.
reasonable security for guestrooms A level of quality
in the attributes or physical items in a guestroom
that provide the guest with a reasonable measure of
protection from uninvited guests.
rechecks Guestroom or rooms that have been identified
by the front desk as discrepancies and that cannot be
readily resolved at the front desk; requires that the
housekeeping department take a second visual look
at the guestroom to ascertain the correct status of the
recycling Breaking a product down to its essential
elements and making a new product.
red tag system Control system using a red tag (form) to
administer the legal removal of property from a hotel
or hospital facility. The form indicates what material
is being removed and who the rightful property owner
is; it is signed by a manager. A receipt (second copy)
of the form is collected by a door security person as
the item is removed and is returned to the authorizing
manager for control.
regular employee One who has attained full-time employment
status; usually attained after successfully completing
a probationary period of employment.
relief team See swing team.
repair and physical maintenance Correction of a physical
defect in a facility; occurs under the direction of
the head of the repair and maintenance department
(chief engineer).
reporting systems Determining critical data that will
be needed, by whom, and how often in order to
follow the conduct of an operation. An activity of
controlling .
resident manager Person in charge of hotel operations
exclusive of food and beverage operations; principal
assistant to a hotel manager. An executive committee
member. Usually the immediate supervisor for a front
office manager and the executive housekeeper .
resilient floors Floors that ‘‘give’’ underfoot. When
dented, a resilient floor will eventually rebound wholly
or partially to its original form. Resilient flooring
materials include asphalt tile, carpet, linoleum, rubber,
vinyl tile, and wood.
resort hotel A hotel with fine amenities and luxury
flair located near or organized about social settings,
geographical points of interest, or centers of activity.
May be frequented by business travelers but is
primarily a vacation destination.
reuse Using a product more than once before recycling
or landfilling.
rewarding employees Praising or disciplining employees
as necessary to show acceptance or rejection of
performance.Apart of performance appraisal; an activity
of controlling .
room check Visual check of a guestroom by an employee
to determine the status of the room. Room is either
ready (R), occupied (OCC), or checkout (C/O).
room found vacant (RFV) Status of a guestroom as
observed by housekeeping that was thought to have
been occupied according to the front desk. This is
not an unusual occurrence when guests who have
made prior arrangements for payment of bills depart
without notifying the front desk. Also, guests who pay
in advance may depart without notifying the front
desk. This creates a discrepancy that must be resolved
by rechecking the room.
room inspections Periodic inspections of guestrooms to
ensure that standards of cleanliness and servicing are
being maintained.
room revenue Gross monies generated from the sale of
guestrooms in a hotel.
room section Group of 13 to 20 guestrooms reasonably
contiguous to each other that may normally be
cleaned and serviced by one person in one eight-hour
shift. The room section is normally assigned a number
and assigned to a section housekeeper .
sales per man-hour Performance ratio of two statistics
maintained by the hotel industry that can act as
a measure of operational performance; reflects the
amount of revenue received for the sale of guestrooms
for every man-hour used in support of the hotel
occupancy that generated the revenue; can be
budgeted or forecast in preparation of a comparison
to actual performance. See also target statistics.
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Salmonella choleraesuis (sal-moe-NELL-a coll-er-ah-
SUE-iss) Gram negative. A form of food poisoning
that the body can usually tolerate and throw off. The
bacteria are used to test germicides.
Sanforizing A patented process that preshrinks cotton,
linen, or rayon fabric; invented by Sanford L. Cluett
sanitizer A sanitizing substance or product. To sanitize
is to prevent the spread of disease.
satellite linen room One of several service areas located
in the guestroom area of the hotel used as central
workstation for a housekeeping team; a storage area
for bed and bath linens and other supplies used
regularly by section housekeepers and aides in the
performance of their work tasks. See also housekeeping
satisfiers Experiences intrinsic in a job or work that create
positive attitudes and act to enhance motivation.
See also dissatisfiers.
scenario An outline of possible events or happenings.
scientific management Systematic way of thinking about
management based on obtaining information from
which to derive facts, form conclusions, make recommendations,
and take action.
sealer A product intended to fill in the holes in the
porous surface of a floor. It protects the floor from
spilled liquids.
secondary backing A second backing on a carpet that
provides additional strength, usually made from
polypropylene or jute.
second request Second maintenance work request form
submitted to the maintenance department for work
called for on a prior request and not yet completed.
seconds Linens and clothing that have imperfections.
Most imperfections are not noticeable and have no
effect on the product’s use.
section housekeeper Person regularly assigned to clean
guestrooms in a hotel. Synonymous with maid,
chambermaid, room attendant. See also GRA and
guestroom attendant.
section housekeeper’s daily work report Form designed
for a specific (numbered) room section that is used by a
section housekeeper during the day. A copy of this form
will be used to make a p.m. room check and will become
a p.m. report.
section housekeeping aide Worker who is a member
of and assists workers in a housekeeping team. Must
be capable of lifting heavy objects and operating
heavy machinery in the servicing and cleaning of
major areas in the guestroom portion of a hotel; is not
directly involved in regular and routine guestroom
security Quality or condition of being free from danger,
fear, anxiety, uncertainty, doubt, or care.
selecting employees Recruiting and acquiring qualified
people for each position in an organization. An
activity of staffing.
selvage The side edge of a towel. There is no pile warp
present in the selvage. It is finished off to prevent
senior housekeeper Hourly supervisor who is in charge
of a house division and division personnel; supervises
several section housekeepers and a section housekeeping
aide; performs supervisory functions and ensures
that division workers perform to standards; inspects
guestrooms cleaning when necessary.
senior housekeeper’s daily work report form A document
indicating every room within a house division
broken down into sections. Allows the senior housekeeper
to progress work of section housekeepers throughout
the day within the assigned division.
senior housekeeping aide Working supervisor assistant
to the executive housekeeper; is in charge of all public
area cleaning, project work, storeroom inventories,
and training section and utility housekeeping
sequential functions of management See management
sequential functions.
setting objectives Determining desired end results. An
activity of planning.
shams Decorative pillow covers used on a bed. Shams are
often made from the same material as the bedspread.
sharps A small plastic case outfitted for a flow-through
cleansing agent that is used to clean and sanitize
needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments.
shellac A varnish made from alcohol and refined lac, a
sticky substance made from the deposits of insects.
simulation training A training technique whereby a
guestroom is set aside for training purposes and
various situations are presented to the trainee for
single occupancy Guestroom is occupied by only one
guest. See also double occupancy; multiple occupancy.
situational leadership Management theory that asserts
that the leadership style of the manager must vary
according to the situation, that being the skill level
and attitude of the subordinate.
sizing laundries Determination of proper washing, drying,
and handling capacities for the on-premises laundry.
skip To leave a hotel without paying a bill.
smog A witch’s brew of airborne pollutants including
ozone, particulates, hydrocarbons, nitrous oxides,
and sulfur dioxides, primarily caused by the burning
of fossil fuels. The name combines ‘‘smoke’’ and
snoop Someone hired to work undercover for the
purpose of gathering evidence against people guilty
of dishonest acts.
By Rooms on 5-2-2009 20:54 last edited

software items Fixtures found in a hotel or hospital
room that are normally considered a part of depreciable
fixed assets, such as mattresses, curtains, draperies,
pillows, and other items of soft nature; does not
include bed and bath linens.
software program The program by which a computer
processes data; as opposed to computer hardware, the
physical components of a computer system.
source reduction The best strategy, when appropriate,
to reduce a solid waste stream. It consists of not
creating waste to begin with.
sour A substance used to lower the pH level of
the laundry wash water to enhance the bleaching
spalling The chipping or breaking up of a stone floor
span of control The number of subordinates who can
be adequately supervised by a superior. Factors that
influence this number include the complexity of the
task, the skill level of the subordinates, distance, and
spirochetes Corkscrew-shaped microorganisms.
spores Microorganisms that are in a restive, protective
spot check Selective inspection of guestrooms and other
sections of a hotel to ensure that standards of cleanliness
and maintenance are being maintained.
spray buffing The application of a finish solution while
polishing a floor’s surface to retouch worn spots and
to restore a glossy look to the floor’s surface.
staffing Performing certain activities that result in selecting
competent people for positions in an organization;
See also management sequential functions.
standard operating procedures (SOPs) A formal document
of a standing nature that specifies a certain
method of operating or a specific procedure for the
accomplishment of a task.
standards of cleanliness Statement of the conditions
that will exist when work has been performed satisfactorily.
Used sometimes as a basis for constructing
inspection forms. See also standards setting .
standards setting Prescribing the conditions that will
exist when work has been done satisfactorily.
standing rotational scheduling system A continuous
system of scheduling workers or teams of workers for
regular days off in each week of a seven-week period.
Regular days off in each workweek rotate forward (or
back) as each week passes through the seven-week
cycle. See also tight schedule.
Staphylococcus aureus (staff-ill-i-COCK-us OAR-ee-us)
A grapelike-cluster organism that can cause boils, skin
infections, purulent discharge, and/or peritonitis.
steady extra Classification of employee or employment
for people who work in a steady but part-timemanner;
used mostly in union operations. See also part-time
sterilization A process whereby all bacteria are killed by
stock-out A depleted item that is normally found in
Streptococcus pyogenes (strep-tow-COCK-us pie-O-jeans)
Chainlike round organism that causes the strep throat
infection. Gram positive. Bacteria found in public
places; wound and throat infections. Also associated
with scarlet fever and rheumatic fever.
stewards’ department Food and beverage department in
a hotel operation that cleans and maintains kitchens,
among other tasks.
stripper A product designed to remove old floor finish
and sealer. The product often has an ammoniated
styrene butadiene rubber A synthetic rubber made from
petroleum and used as a floor surface material.
subroutine A routine series of events or activities performed
periodically in a housekeeping department,
different from the daily routine but of equal importance.
Involves controlling operations, purchasing,
personnel administration, communications and training,
and long-range planning.
suite (S) Two or more guestrooms that are sold as a unit
and that connect internally. See also guestroom types.
swing team Housekeeping team that works in relief of
one or more regular housekeeping teams that have
been assigned a regular day off. Swing teams work
in place of regular house division teams according
to predetermined scheduling on a standing rotational
scheduling system.
syringe Refers to a hypodermic syringe.
systemeering A term coined by Baring Industries (laundry
consultants) relating to the service provided by
their consultants when studying and establishing laundry
equipment requirements for a user (customer).
Service includes recommendations for equipment
purchases, bid service, andmechanical rough-in drawings
for utility service.
table of personnel requirements Management tool that
shows the number of rooms that will require service
and the number guestroom attendants needed for
each percentage of occupancy.
taking corrective action Adjusting plans and counseling
as necessary to attain standards. May require
replanning and a repeat of the sequential functions
of management. An activity of controlling .
target statistics Numerical items of data that become
goals for the measurement of performance.
Taylor, Frederick W. Noted industrialist, author, and
consultant recognized as the father of scientific
team scheduling System of scheduling whereby a group
of employees organized into a permanent team is
scheduled to perform work as a unit. See also team
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team staffing System of staffing whereby employees are
hired and combined into identifiable teams for the
purpose of performing units of work that have been
combined into logical relationships. See also team
scheduling; housekeeping team.
team system of organization System of formal organization
whereby several similar organizational groups
may be identified and recognized as performing identical
types of work tasks. See also team scheduling; team
staffing; housekeeping team.
temporary employee Classification of employee or
employment for which the period of employment will
be only temporary. Employment termination date is
usually established at the time of employment.
tensile strength An indicator of fabric quality. The
degree of tensile strength is determined by the
amount of weight it takes to tear a 1  × 3  piece
of fabric.
terminal cleaning The action of cleaning a patient room
or surgical suite upon completion of its use.
terrazzo A composition flooring material made from
chips ofmarble, granite, travertine, or other materials,
and portland cement.
Theory X A way of thinking about employees that
implies that there is no intrinsic satisfaction found in
work; that human beings avoid it as much as possible;
that positive (authoritative) direction is needed to
achieve organization goals; and that workers possess
little ambition or originality. A Theory X manager
is recognized by the manner in which he or she
Theory Y Managerial thinking that implies that work
is natural and to be enjoyed by the worker; that
the committed worker will exercise self-discipline
and direction; that avoidance of responsibility, lack
of ambition, and emphasis on security are general
consequences of experience—not inherent human
Theory Z Japanese management model that asserts
that productivity can be enhanced in an organization
by involving all employees in the planning and
decision-making process. Term coined by Thomas
Ouchi in his management text, Theory Z. See participative
thermoplastic Certain resins that have the potential of
becoming soft when heated.
thread count The total number of threads in a
one-inch-square piece of cloth. It is one of a number
of quality indicators.
three-stroke solution Refers to the dilution (with water)
ratio of an all-purpose cleaner that provides a proper
agent for certain cleaning operations in approximately
three wipes; for example, 40:1 dilution of a
specific cleaning agent is used to clean mirrors and
windows in three wiping strokes. See also one-stroke
ticking A strong cloth used to cover mattresses and
tidy (tidies) (T) The act of tidying or identifying rooms
that require tidying in order to make ready to rent.
Tidies require only light service and usually do not
require the full making of a bed or heavy service.
Tidies are also rooms that have already been serviced
once before a guest departs but then require light
service to make them ready for reoccupancy.
tight schedule System of scheduling whereby a standing
rotational scheduling system may be or is modified on
a daily basis to accommodate a specific guestroom
time card control The act of controlling use of time cards
by employees so as to conform to company policy and
government regulations.
time in the hole An expression of calendar days between
the time a worker completes a workweek and the
time that paychecks or pay will become available;
ranges between 3 and 14 days; depending on payroll
processing and delivery procedures.
time sheets, weekly or periodic Documents on which
times from employee time cards are recorded; forms
the basis for calculation of earned or benefit pay.
A basis for payroll. May contain other forms of pay
besides time actually worked.
torn sheet size Torn sheet size is the length and width
of a sheet before the top and bottom hems are added.
Top and bottom hems will subtract approximately five
inches from the length of the sheet.
total linen on hand See linen on hand.
training employees Making employees proficient in
the performance of a task through instruction and
practice. An activity of staffing.
Tricophyton interdigitale (tri-CO-fi-ton inter-digit-
ALL-ee) No gram stain. A fungus (athlete’s foot),
which can be used to evaluate a germicidal.
truck mount A portable carpet extraction system that
is installed in a panel truck. It consists of a solution
tank, a recovery tank, a heater, and pumps. Hoses are
attached from the unit to the operator’s wand.
tung oil A poisonous oil from the seeds of the tung tree.
It is often used in finishing wood surfaces.
tunnel washer A high-capacity laundry washer found in
commercial laundries.
turnover The number of employee separations in an
organization over a period, expressed as a percentage.
Calculated by taking the total number of separations
that occur in a year and dividing by the average
number of total positions in the organization (the
total number of positions in the organization at
the beginning of the year plus the total number of
positions at the end of the year divided by 2). This
ratio is expressed as a percentage. High turnover is
costly to an organization.
turnover rate See turnover .
By Rooms on 5-2-2009 20:54 last edited

uniforms Distinctive clothes worn by employees so that
they can be recognized by the general public as being
part of a business.
varnish A liquid that gives a shiny, hard, transparent
surface to wood or metal; made from resins that have
been dissolved in oil, turpentine, or alcohol.
virus A part of the protist kingdom; includes influenza
(a flu virus), herpes simplex, vaccine (cowpox),
adeno virus type 2, and AIDS. Gram positive (blue
stain). Major cause of infections (boils, carbuncles,
ear infections) and food poisonings. Size is 0.8 to
1micron. It is resistant to antibiotics. Best cure is
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) Hydrocarbons.
Unstable elements that easily turn into gases. Found
in a host of products such as paint strippers, cleaners,
and solvents. They constitute amajor source of indoor
air pollution.
wage costs Classification of labor based on the calculation
of hours worked times a given or assigned wage
rate, depending on the classification of the employee.
See also controllable costs; employee costs.
wage department Classification system for the identification
of various types of man-hours used by departments
in hotels and hospitals. Classifications usually
refer to the types of work that are to be performed.
warp Lengthwise threads of yarn in a fabric.
wash formula Quantitative determinants of how long a
specific type or piece of linen is to be washed, rinsed,
and extracted; includes temperatures of wash and
rinse solutions and quantities of detergents, bleaches,
and softeners to be used during the various wash
washing capacity Optimum weight of linen that should
be placed in an automatic commercial washing
machine; for example, 50-pound, 100-pound,
200-pound washer; used in sizing laundries. See also
drying capacity; handling capacity.
waste transformation The alteration of materials in a
solid waste stream. The intent is to reduce their mass.
Compactors, pulpers, and shredders are used in the
transformation. Can also be meant to alter the waste
into another form, such as in a waste-to-energy plant.
weekly maintenance Identified housekeeping service or
repair-type maintenance that is to be performed each
week on schedule.
weekly wage analysis Breakdown of expended wages
by departments, showing comparisons to budgeted
and forecast wages; identifies out-of-control areas and
indicates corrective measures to regain control of
costs if necessary.
weekly wage forecast Document prepared weekly by
housekeeping management indicating how many
man-hours will be required or expended, and in
what wage departments (classifications), to support a
specified forecast of guestroom occupancy.
weft The threads of yarn that run the width of a fabric.
‘‘what-if’’ publication Interesting presentation of emergency
situations a person might encounter in a hotel
or hospital. Presentation is in the form of questions
asking ‘‘what if’’ and enlightened alternative
work calendar Seven-week period of time divided into
workweeks; indicating regular workdays and regular
days off in each week as presented in the standing
rotational scheduling system.
work-centered theory of management Classical theory
of management that focuses on a concern for
workshop training Training technique used primarily
for supervisors. Involves the presentation of managerial
problems and allows the participants to work out
one or more solutions, which are then critiqued.
workweek Seven consecutive days with an identifiable
beginning and ending used to identify and separate
one week from another in a continuous daily
operation. Workweeks may begin on any day of
the week and end six days later. The identification
of workweeks is imperative in continuous daily
operations for scheduling and accounting purposes.
zero-based budgeting A concept of budgeting that
requires the planner to start the entire budgeting
process from scratch each year. No prior assumptions
regarding past years are made. Although extremely
accurate in its approach, it is time-consuming and
difficult to attempt in an extremely complex and/or
large organization.
zone Segmented part of a facility subject to zone
inspection. See zone inspection program.
zone inspection program A form of property inspection
program whereby various sections of a hotel are divided
into zones and assigned to several zone inspectors;
usually conducted once each week.
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