Environmental Management

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Introduction
The environment has become one of the major issues facing
not only the hospitality industry but also humankind, with
the increasing acknowledgement that human activity is causing
global climate change. In the tourism industry, the importance
of the environment has long been recognized. Indeed, the
concept of ‘sustainability’ originated and developed in this
sector. This is largely because much of leisure tourism is based
on visitation to places with natural or manmade resources
that people can enjoy. Paradoxically, the more people seek out
natural resources such as Ayers Rock in Australia or beaches
in Thailand, and manmade attraction such as Egypt’s pyramids
or Disneyworld, the less attractive they become. This is
because the effect of visitation is to erode or reduce the very
resource that is being visited. For example, in the Veneto
region of Italy, hotels noticed a sharp downturn in business
in the early 1990s. They discovered this was due to northern
European visitors being dissatisfied with the region’s attitude
to the environment. In response, hotels and tourism operators
formed a consortium to demonstrate and promote green values.
As a result, Hotel Ariston in Milan implemented an environmental
policy and increased its occupancy by 15% (Ball
et al. 2002: 112).
Given the importance of this subject, there has been relatively
little research into environmental management in the
hospitality industry. The most prolific and influential source
of information has been Green Hotelier, a magazine aimed at
industry practitioners. Over an extended period, this publication
has provided a very large number of articles, often based
on case studies of highly applied ‘research’. Stipanuk (1996)
argued that in the USA, the lodging industry responded to
environmental issues long before they became ‘politically
correct, market-opportunity driven or governmentally mandated’.
He argues that this history of concern should mean
that the industry will continue to care about the environment
irrespective of incentives or legislative pressures. Writing at
the same time, however, Brown (1996) expressed some reservations
about how proactive the industry was, based on her
survey of 106 hotel general managers in the UK. She based this
on the failure of hotel companies to incorporate environmental
measures into their management reporting and control systems.
Kirk (1998) also surveyed hotel managers, in this case in
Edinburgh, and found a similar lack of action. Of 85 respondents,
only 19 reported an environmental policy in operation.

Environmental action
Sustainable development has been described as a new paradigm
for management theory and practice. The World Commission
on Environment and Development (i.e. The Brundtland
Commission) defined sustainable development as development
which meets the needs of the present without compromising
the ability of future generations to meet their own
needs (WCED 1987). A concrete result of the Rio meeting of
the world’s leaders was the development of the publication
known as Agenda 21 (UN 1992). Subsequently, this was translated
by the WTTC into Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism
Industry. This developed priority areas for both the public and
private sectors.

Comments

In order to achieve sustainability, a wide number of stakeholdershave to be involved – governments, environmentalagencies, business and consumers. Governments are increasinglyintroducing legislation and regulation to manage ourimpact on the environment. In addition to international andgovernmental pressures for change, we are also seeing thegrowth of the green consumer. Hospitality businesses are subjectboth to the ‘push’ of governmental pressure, for examplethrough the ‘polluter pays’ principle, and the ‘pull’ of the market,as increasing numbers of consumers express a preferencefor green products and services. They have responded to thesepressures in a variety of ways.Some business managers simply think of the environmentas part of a raft of government regulations, that is, as an issueof compliance with laws and codes of practice. Others haveseen environmental management as a means of differentiatingthemselves and have gone in for environmental or ‘green’award schemes. A more sophisticated approach is to see environmental responsibility become part of the search for totalquality. The parallels between aiming for total quality and cradleto-grave environmental management can be seen through similaraudit systems (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000).Increasingly, however, companies are accepting the ethicalcase for developing sustainable strategies. Such businesses feelthat they have a corporate responsibility to go beyond what islegally required and to operate on a sustainable basis. Somehave incorporated environmental management and wastemanagement procedures into their existing operations; somehave developed new procedures, based on an environmentalpolicy; and many companies now have environmental reportsin their annual company reports.The five main drivers for change towards sustainable developmentin an organization are:- the need for compliance with legislative and fiscalrequirements- opportunities for financial savings- consumer attitudes and pressure- public opinion- enlightened senior managementCompanies often progress through a number of evolutionarychanges in their approach to environmental management.The first stage of development is sometimes referred to as an‘end of pipe mentality’, where the concern is with dangerousor toxic wastes, disposal of the waste materials and waste ofscarce resources. This approach leads to an emphasis on wasteminimization and waste recycling.The second stage of development is based on an evaluationof an existing process holistically, through consideration of theinput–transformation–output process.1 This leads to a considerationof the measurement of the ratio of input to output(system efficiency) and policies designed to maximize the useof resources. These considerations lead to better controls overpurchasing, storage, production and service.

The third stage of development reflects the approach ofa company which has an environmental vision, reflected ina holistic design of their systems, environmental principlesdesigned into the total organization, and consideration forall the internal and external processes in the organization. Byconsidering all these factors as a system and how all the partsof an operation interact, it should be possible to make sensibledecisions which allow it to obtain the optimum benefit to theenvironment while not threatening the financial viability ofthe hotel. Treating the operation as a whole, and consideringinteractions between design, purchasing specification, productionplanning, stock management, waste management andwaste disposal, it is found that it is possible to gain bothenvironmental and financial benefits, the latter savings being ableto be used to finance environmental initiatives with no immediateshort-term payback.The extent to which large international hospitality chainshave reached the third stage is debatable. A study byPricewaterhouseCoopers (2001) researched the environmentalpractices of Europe’s 10 largest hotel chains. Nine of these hadenvironmental policies, but only one of these was externallyaccredited and verified. Four had environmental managementsystems (EMSs) in place and a fifth was planning to do so.Most adopted some form of communication about the environmentwith various stakeholders – annual reports to shareholders,notices in rooms to guests, bulletins or newsletters to staff,and to the world at large on their website. Such chains also facethe challenge that their environmental policy may not fulfil thelegislative and regulatory demands of the individual countriesin which they operate. Moreover, the environmental issues andchallenges can vary widely from one country to another. Insome parts of the world, water is a critical resource, notably onislands and in the Asia Pacific region. The Mandarin Orientalin Jakarta, Indonesia, has been able to save 13% of its waterconsumption, through the use of practical measures, such asreduced flow shower-heads (Clements-Hunt 1995). In otherparts of the world, the issue is air quality, as demonstrated byconcerns with regards the Olympic Games in Beijing.However, some companies do adopt a holistic approach.The Scandic Group of hotels opened a 194-room hotel in Oslo,Norway, in 1997. This hotel incorporates features such as naturalwood and fibres in the construction (each room is 97%recyclable), individual computerized bedroom heating controls,low-energy light bulbs, sub-metering of energy and water andsegregated waste bins in each bedroom (paper, organic waste,metal/plastic) (Green Hotelier 1997a). Iwanowski and Rushmore(1994) strongly argue the case for such eco-friendly hotels.Environmental accreditationOne of the most significant influences has been theInternational Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI). Based onan initiative by the CEO of Intercontinental Hotels in 1991, andsubsequently sponsored by the Princes Trust, the IHEI was setup by 11 of the world’s largest hotel chains. The hotels whichmade up IHEI were able to demonstrate considerable progressin the first five years (Green Hotelier 1998). Subsequently in2004, the IHEI became the International Tourism Partnership(ITP).

As well as continuing to publish Green Hotelier and thestandard work on this issue – Environmental Management forHotels – originally published in 1993, ITP is also publishingin 2007 Sustainable Hotel Siting and Design Guidelines. In additionit has developed a website that will easily enable hotelsto benchmark their environmental performance against othersimilar properties (www.benchmarkhotel.com). Finally it publishesa quick and easy checklist – Going Green – that enableshoteliers to adopt environmental polices and procedures.However, the principal accreditation scheme in this fieldis the internationally recognized ISO 14001 EnvironmentalManagement Standard. This has five core elements – policy,planning, implementation, checking and corrective action, andmanagement review. The Hong Kong Shangri-La became thefirst hotel in the Asia Pacific region to be awarded ISO 14001(Green Hotelier 1997b). In 2000, 8791 certificates were issued,but only 61 of these were to hotel and restaurant firms (Chanand Wong 2006). In their study of 164 hotels in southern Chinaand Macau, Chan and Wong (2006) investigated the motivationfor adopting this standard. They found that the two most importantinfluences were the corporate head office and legislation.Other accreditation schemes include the Green Globe certification(United States), the Green Gum Tree classification(Australia), the Green Leaf Award (Canada) and the GreenTourism Business Award (Scotland). But one of the challengesis the extent to which these schemes, along with benchmarking,are effective in helping the industry to become more environmentallyfriendly. Bohdanowicz et al. (2005) compare fourschemes and conclude that they differ with regard to geographicand climatic areas covered, types of facilities included,nature of environmental information required, benchmarkingmethods, user friendliness and implementation cost. They goon to arguing the case for an internationally agreed standardapproach to benchmarking.Chan and Wong’s (2006) study also suggested that small hospitalitybusinesses were less engaged with environmental issuesthan large chains. Brown’s (1996) study also found this, as didStabler and Goodall’s (1997) study of the hospitality sector on theisland of Guernsey. Stabler and Goodall (1997) also concludedthat external influences were most likely to change attitudesand behaviours. They strongly recommended action by centraland local government to achieve this, through grading schemes,building regulations, incentives, and leafing by example.Environmental managementThe application of systems theory2 is particularly relevantto the environment, since the natural world is made up of anumber of highly complex and interacting systems that havecome to be called the ‘ecosystem’. The purpose of an EMS is tomanage the exchange of materials between the operation – thatis to optimize inputs, processes and outputs. Much of environmentalmanagement is concerned with the nature of systemsoutputs, particularly those we consider as waste. However, itis becomingly increasingly clear that in order to manage theimpact on the environment, we need to consider not only theoutputs, but also the inputs and processes.

There is always a danger that the focus is on the wrong subsystemor system component. What happened in the case ofpollution control was an exclusive concentration on treatingundesirable outputs through pollution control – an expensiveoption. However, it was later recognized that looking at inputsand processes, which themselves contain hidden pollutioncosts, and innovating to eliminate all undesirable pollution(pollution prevention) can be more effective. Pollution is notsimply an inevitable outcome, but a symptom. The cause maybe close in time and space, for example the production process;or more remote, for instance a design flaw; or both.Planning and designing ‘green’ buildingsSome articles have expressed the view that the whole economicand business system has to be redesigned to integratewith the natural environment. They advocate the redesign orstart up of a business so that it does maintain a holistic relationshipbetween economy and ecology, and is not thereforelimited to ‘end-of-pipe’ remedies such as reducing existingemissions. Many companies in the hospitality industry haveattempted the design or redesign approach.Apart from hospitals, hotels have the highest environmentalimpact of commercial buildings due to the amounts of energy,water and other resources they consume every day of theyear. Indeed, the construction industry, in general, consumeshalf of the resources produced on the planet every year, andis directly and indirectly responsible for about 40% of emissions(Rada 1996). One of the most obvious commercial advantagesof environmentally designing a new hotel or restaurantis that it will have lower operating costs than a conventionallydesigned structure. Rada (1996) suggests that the main principlesof environmental design are:- minimizing the use of resources, the advantages of which cascadedown into reduced maintenance and technical equipmentcosts;- thinking of a building as a complete system rather than as a collectionof engineering disciplines; and- multifunctional use of parts, features and systems which havethe twin advantages of reducing costs and increasingfunctionality.Stipanuk (1996) reports that even in 1954, Statler HotelsCorporation was building properties designed with a ‘consciousconsideration of recycling, use of daylight for lightingrestaurant space, reuse of guest linens, a minimization of materialsin construction, and reductions in energy usage’. Todayhotels may be constructed and operated completely with theenvironment in mind, as with the Orchid Hotel in India (Jones2002). Whilst renewable sources of energy are desirable, thereare some constraints. Solar power is particularly suitable fornew hotels in sunny climes, and other renewables are available(derived from the wind, hydroelectric, wave, tidal andgeothermal power), but currently they account for only a verysmall proportion of the world’s energy supplies.

Environmental management systems characteristicsThe characteristics of an EMS are:- A written policy statement- A set of targets against which to measure progress- Agreed specific actions- Monitoring results against targetsAn EMS requires to be ‘fed’ from a variety of sources,including internal subsystems and the external environment.Some of these may be considered as ‘tools’ of environmentalmanagement which provide feedback. The EMS then respondsto this feedback. There is a need ‘to establish structures andnorms which will ensure that environmental performance isimproved over time’. This may be achieved through the organizationfirst assessing its own performance and then respondingto that data by setting benchmarks (Stainer and Stainer1997). Just as the implementation of a TQM programmerequires the full support of top management, so does an EMS.Indeed, those organizations that have already implementedTQM find it easier not only to meet legal requirements but alsoto integrate ‘total quality environmental management’ intotheir TQM system.An EMS may be seen as hierarchy, starting with, at the highestlevel of the organization, a policy statement. Below this willbe operational systems which impact on the day-to-day managementof all of the areas of a hospitality business: purchasing,food production, food service, rooms division, maintenance,transport and so on. Achievements against targets will be measuredagainst a regular audit of environmental performance.The environmental policy and mission statements *All employees have to play their part in moving the organizationtowards sustainable development. The productionand dissemination of clear environmental policy and missionstatements, endorsed by senior management, is essential.These must include specific and attainable goals and targets,including performance targets, and details of the arrangementsfor monitoring, control and communication. The policystatement should also clarify responsibilities. Whether issuedas a new policy statement or incorporated into the company’smission statement, the environmental initiative must be linkedto action and targets. Hence, in larger companies, a specificenvironmental manager or co-ordinator is probably needed toensure the environmental strategy is implemented.While no responsible company would aim at minimumtargets, it is important to know what these are. Naturally, theorganization has to meet local and national legal requirementsand may wish to incorporate the requirements of a standardsuch as ISO 14001. Any existing company standards will haveto be incorporated in the new policy, and the standards usedby suppliers and recommended by trade bodies may alsoinfluence policy. A policy should:- be brief, maximum two pages- be such that it is understood by, and communicated to, alllevels of the company- be available to the public

- include a commitment to progressively reducing areas ofenvironmental impact- include a commitment to meet all current legislation- aim to go beyond legal compliance- indicate that individuals will be assigned directresponsibility- indicate that an auditing programme will be set up to measurethe implementation of the policy- have a commitment to review the policy after a specifiedperiod- be consistent with health and safety policies of the companyA possible model for effective environmental performanceappraisal, in the form of a continuous loop, is given in Table 17.1.Table 17.1 The environmental performance appraisal model1. Define the environmental context and objectives2. Identify potential measures3. Select appropriate measures4. Set targets5. Implement measures6. Monitor and communicate results7. Act on results8. ReviewSource: James and Bennett (1994).The environmental audit *The term ‘audit’ is usually associated with finance, and a financialaudit involves the application of rigid rules. By contrast,environmental auditing is based on balancing of facts and values,rather than just on financial measures. The purpose of anenvironmental audit (EA) is to assess the performance of anorganization against prescribed targets related to inputs, processesand outputs.- Input measures include indicators, targets and measures ofplant efficiency, materials quality and recyclability. It may beseen as much broader than simply material input and mightinclude, for example, the effectiveness of training staff.- Process measures aim at percentage improvements in reducingwaste in stock holding, processing and packaging.- Output measures record impact on, or damage to, the community,including waste, emissions and pollution.Clearly, such an audit on the whole organization must be carriedout at regular intervals, feeding back internal informationfor control of the EMS. As we shall see, audits of subsystemsof the EMS, such as those of specific resources – water, energyand so on – feed back into policies relating to the specific management of these resources.Energy managementHotels were forced to look for energy economies when thecost of oil soared in 1973–1974. The American Hotel and MotelAssociation conducted annual surveys of energy usage between1977 and 1984, which showed reductions of 35% over this period(Stipanuk 1996). Hotels use more energy, in terms of dollars persquare metre, than industrial buildings, naturally ventilatedoffices and schools. The benefits of good energy managementto the environment include conservation through a reduction inthe use of non-renewable energy resources, and also a diminishingof atmospheric pollution, global warming, ozone depletionand acid rain.

The principle of energy management is to minimize theamount and cost of energy used by the hotel without any perceivedloss of comfort to the guests unless this is done with theirconsent, for instance if they agree that they do not need freshtowels every day. Deng and Burnett (2000) studied the energyperformance in 16 quality hotels in Hong Kong. An averageEnergy Use Index (EUI) based on unit floor area was derived forthese properties using energy consumption data for 1995. Thebreakdown of energy use showed that electricity dominatedtotal energy consumption and that, on average, about one-thirdof total energy was used for air conditioning. A number of factorsthat affect the energy use in hotel buildings, such as year ofconstruction, hotel class, among others, were reviewed. The difficultiesin assessing hotel-building energy performance werealso discussed, and methods for adequately evaluating energyperformance for hotel buildings were proposed.Energy in existing buildings may be saved by implementingthe following measures (Kirk 1996; International TourismPartnership 2007):- A review of the mix of energy sources used;- A review of tariffs used or other contractual arrangementswith energy supply companies;- Staff training leading to practical steps that can be taken toreduce energy consumption;- A programme of capital investment on the building, plantand equipment in order to reduce energy consumption;- Checking and maintaining all equipment regularly;- Implementing low-cost measures such as energy-efficientlight bulbs and motion detectors;- Improve insulation;- Use bicycles or other environmentally friendly vehiclesaround resort properties.A study of 158 hotels in Greece (Santamouris et al. 1996)found that the annual average total energy consumption was273 kWh/m2. This was a very high level compared with othertypes of building. Based on simulations, it was estimated that20% savings could be made by making changes to the building’souter envelope, heating and cooling systems, and lighting.In comparison, Chan (2005) investigated energy usage in17 hotels located in the subtropics and found annual energyusage to be 313 kWh/m2, nearly 40% more than the Greekproperties. However, this was an improvement on an earlierstudy of 17 hotels in Hong Kong (Chan and Lam 2002) whichreported consumption of 342 kWh/m2.The energy management programme *For the programme to be successful, someone within the hospitalitybusiness should be given managerial responsibility forenergy use. In many cases this will be the individual responsiblefor both building and maintenance and possibly thetotal environmental management programme. Staff may alsobe designated to collect energy data (International TourismPartnership 2007). Alternatively, some hospitality businesseshave outsourced their energy management to a contract company,to exploit their expertise and economies of scale.The first step in any energy management programme is anenergy audit. By analysing and evaluating historic recordsand hotel statistics, a measure of the energy performance ofthe entire building can be obtained. Deng and Burnett (2000)studied the energy performance of 16 hotels in Hong Kong.

They found that the age of the building, star rating and occupancyhad no impact on usage. However, they strongly recommendedseparating guest floors and non-guest floors forassessing energy performance. The energy performance ofindividual departments, such as restaurants, bars and kitchens,may require specific investment in sub-metering. Anothercomplication is that comparisons can only be made if the unitsof energy are standardized to kWh (kilo-Watt hours). In estimatingcosts, account must be taken of the differing price perkilo-Watt hours of the various sources of energy used and oftheir relative efficiency.The energy audit should provide:- energy consumption and cost data for up to five years;- frequent meter readings to show day-time, night-time andweekend energy consumption;- an inventory of all energy-consuming equipment showingage, power loading and maintenance record, together withdata on frequency of useAs with an EA, an energy audit requires the full involvementof employees. It will show where the energy is being spent, andenergy-saving opportunities. It should also quantify achievableenergy targets. However, it is important to note that energyperformance indicators are meaningless without having anexternal comparator, such as the equivalent for other hospitalitybusinesses and industry average data. Care must be takenin comparing one hotel with another as there are many factorsassociated with the construction, location and operation of ahotel that can affect energy consumption, for example facilitieslike leisure centres and swimming pools, and air conditioning.Materials and waste managementCummings (1992) clearly articulated the ‘urgent’ need forsolid waste minimization in the hospitality industry. A wastemanagement scheme will reduce the amount of waste produced,partly through recycling, where feasible, and thus alsomake savings in resources such as time, materials and money.For economic reasons, such a scheme will concentrate first onachieving maximum waste minimization and only then on disposalof the residual waste. As in other environmental managementprogrammes, problems must be viewed holistically, wastemanagement being perceived as a process affecting all stages ofan operation from design to production and aimed at maximizingthe value of all resources.Every employee must make their personal contribution towaste management, including product and services designers,those responsible for purchasing, stock control, operations andsales management, with the aim of achieving the best possiblefinancial return.As with other environmental management programmes, thefirst stage is the design of a waste audit. It is, however, inevitablethat some waste will occur, unless there is appropriate, local,multi-sector co-operation to close the waste loop. Managementof this waste must be carried out within the constraints of thehotel’s legal duty of care in a prioritized manner as follows:1. re-use the material if possible;2. if not, collect and separate waste streams for possiblerecycling;

3. if this is not possible and the material has potential energyvalue, contribute it to local incineration or power generationschemes;4. if none of the above options are possible, consign to a landfillsite.A holistic approach to waste management must take accountof waste which is not measurable as an ‘output’, for examplethe excessive use of detergents and cleaning fluids. This is oftencalled ‘invisible waste’ and can be detected by means of a morecomprehensive input–output analysis, combined with measuresof efficiency, including comparisons with other hospitalitybusinesses in a chain or industry standards. Particular attentionshould be paid to levels of food waste. Around 15.5% of ediblefood has been found to be wasted in hotels and restaurants(Ball et al. 2002). Paper is another commodity where waste canbe minimized by reducing consumption, re-use and recyclingwhere necessary. An analysis of present use, including purchasesand waste, should yield some solutions to the problem.The advantages to the environment of recycling are obvious.However, there are also financial advantages, including areduction of the cost of waste disposal and the cash value ofsome of the products of recycling. Table 17.2 identifies somecommon recyclable materials and the resulting products.Many hospitality businesses throughout the world are stillusing refrigeration systems which predate the new generation ofCFC- and HCFC-free units, despite international initiatives andlegal sanctions. Technological advances have produced alternativesto these hazardous chemicals which are cheaper and moreefficient and it is now a relatively easy task for maintenance engineersto carry out the necessary conversion. As already noted, safecollection and disposal of the CFCs and HCFCs is essential sothat the gases do not escape into the atmosphere. Clearly, whenbuying new refrigeration units or air-conditioning plant, managersshould buy only CFC- and HCFC-free equipment. Energysavings of 10–50% are possible with modern equipment.Table 17.2 Recyclable materialsAluminium, for example cans and foils with high waste value, made into new aluminium products.   Steel cans: the tin coating is removed and the steel melted down for steel-based products.    Paper: separated into differing qualities; the high-grade paper is treated and made into boxboard, tissue, printing and writing paper, newsprint and liner board.    Glass: usually clear glass is separated from coloured glass. The glass is crushed and treated, then melted, the molten glass being made into new containers, fibre glass or glass beads for reflective paint.    Plastic: plastic goods require careful sorting. The plastic can then be melted and remoulded into drainpipes, insulation, rope, carpet backing and many other goods.    Frying oil: this has a commercial value and may be collected by manufacturers for a variety of uses, including the base for cosmetics.    Source: Kirk (1996: 117–118).Management of the indoor environmentThe indoor environment comprises air quality and levels oflighting and noise. These can impact upon the comfort, healthand well-being of customers. Each country will have its ownregulations covering health and safety. In the UK, the Healthand Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Health and Safety at WorkRegulations 1992 provide the main legal requirements. Theseare supplemented by the Control of Substances Hazardous toHealth Regulations 1988. The UK regulations cover, in particular,the dangers of occupational lung diseases caused by exposureto dust, smoke and chemicals.

Santamouris, M., Balaras, C. A., Dascalaki, E., Argiriou, A.and Gaglia, A. (1996) Energy conservation and retrofittingpotential in Hellenic hotels, Energy and Buildings, 24, 1,65–75Stabler, M. J. and Goodall, B. (1997) Environmental awareness,action and performance in the Guernsey hospitality sector,Tourism Management, 18, 1, 19–33Stainer, A. and Stainer, L. (1997) Ethical dimensions ofenvironmental management, European Business Review, 97, 5,224–230Stipanuk, D. M. (1996) The U.S. lodging industry and theenvironment, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant AdministrationQuarterly, 37, 5, 39–45UN (United Nations) (1992) Report of the UN Conference onEnvironment and Development, General Assembly ResolutionA/RES/47/190, UN: New YorkWan Yim King Penny (2007) The use of environmental managementas a facilities management tool in the Macao hotelsector, Facilities, 25, 7/8, 286–295WCED (The World Commission on Environmental andDevelopment) (1987) Our Common Future (The BruntlandReport), Oxford University Press: OxfordWelford, R. (1994) Cases in Environmental Management andBusiness Strategy, Pitman Publishing: London

In order to achieve sustainability, a wide number of stakeholdershave to be involved – governments, environmentalagencies, business and consumers. Governments are increasinglyintroducing legislation and regulation to manage ourimpact on the environment. In addition to international andgovernmental pressures for change, we are also seeing thegrowth of the green consumer. Hospitality businesses are subjectboth to the ‘push’ of governmental pressure, for examplethrough the ‘polluter pays’ principle, and the ‘pull’ of the market,as increasing numbers of consumers express a preferencefor green products and services. They have responded to thesepressures in a variety of ways.Some business managers simply think of the environmentas part of a raft of government regulations, that is, as an issueof compliance with laws and codes of practice. Others haveseen environmental management as a means of differentiatingthemselves and have gone in for environmental or ‘green’award schemes. A more sophisticated approach is to see environmental responsibility become part of the search for totalquality. The parallels between aiming for total quality and cradleto-grave environmental management can be seen through similaraudit systems (ISO 9000 and ISO 14000).Increasingly, however, companies are accepting the ethicalcase for developing sustainable strategies. Such businesses feelthat they have a corporate responsibility to go beyond what islegally required and to operate on a sustainable basis. Somehave incorporated environmental management and wastemanagement procedures into their existing operations; somehave developed new procedures, based on an environmentalpolicy; and many companies now have environmental reportsin their annual company reports.The five main drivers for change towards sustainable developmentin an organization are:- the need for compliance with legislative and fiscalrequirements- opportunities for financial savings- consumer attitudes and pressure- public opinion- enlightened senior managementCompanies often progress through a number of evolutionarychanges in their approach to environmental management.The first stage of development is sometimes referred to as an‘end of pipe mentality’, where the concern is with dangerousor toxic wastes, disposal of the waste materials and waste ofscarce resources. This approach leads to an emphasis on wasteminimization and waste recycling.The second stage of development is based on an evaluationof an existing process holistically, through consideration of theinput–transformation–output process.1 This leads to a considerationof the measurement of the ratio of input to output(system efficiency) and policies designed to maximize the useof resources. These considerations lead to better controls overpurchasing, storage, production and service.

The third stage of development reflects the approach ofa company which has an environmental vision, reflected ina holistic design of their systems, environmental principlesdesigned into the total organization, and consideration forall the internal and external processes in the organization. Byconsidering all these factors as a system and how all the partsof an operation interact, it should be possible to make sensibledecisions which allow it to obtain the optimum benefit to theenvironment while not threatening the financial viability ofthe hotel. Treating the operation as a whole, and consideringinteractions between design, purchasing specification, productionplanning, stock management, waste management andwaste disposal, it is found that it is possible to gain bothenvironmental and financial benefits, the latter savings being ableto be used to finance environmental initiatives with no immediateshort-term payback.The extent to which large international hospitality chainshave reached the third stage is debatable. A study byPricewaterhouseCoopers (2001) researched the environmentalpractices of Europe’s 10 largest hotel chains. Nine of these hadenvironmental policies, but only one of these was externallyaccredited and verified. Four had environmental managementsystems (EMSs) in place and a fifth was planning to do so.Most adopted some form of communication about the environmentwith various stakeholders – annual reports to shareholders,notices in rooms to guests, bulletins or newsletters to staff,and to the world at large on their website. Such chains also facethe challenge that their environmental policy may not fulfil thelegislative and regulatory demands of the individual countriesin which they operate. Moreover, the environmental issues andchallenges can vary widely from one country to another. Insome parts of the world, water is a critical resource, notably onislands and in the Asia Pacific region. The Mandarin Orientalin Jakarta, Indonesia, has been able to save 13% of its waterconsumption, through the use of practical measures, such asreduced flow shower-heads (Clements-Hunt 1995). In otherparts of the world, the issue is air quality, as demonstrated byconcerns with regards the Olympic Games in Beijing.However, some companies do adopt a holistic approach.The Scandic Group of hotels opened a 194-room hotel in Oslo,Norway, in 1997. This hotel incorporates features such as naturalwood and fibres in the construction (each room is 97%recyclable), individual computerized bedroom heating controls,low-energy light bulbs, sub-metering of energy and water andsegregated waste bins in each bedroom (paper, organic waste,metal/plastic) (Green Hotelier 1997a). Iwanowski and Rushmore(1994) strongly argue the case for such eco-friendly hotels.Environmental accreditationOne of the most significant influences has been theInternational Hotels Environment Initiative (IHEI). Based onan initiative by the CEO of Intercontinental Hotels in 1991, andsubsequently sponsored by the Princes Trust, the IHEI was setup by 11 of the world’s largest hotel chains. The hotels whichmade up IHEI were able to demonstrate considerable progressin the first five years (Green Hotelier 1998). Subsequently in2004, the IHEI became the International Tourism Partnership(ITP).

Comfort is a subjective experience even though attemptsmay be made to measure it objectively in terms of temperature,purity of air, humidity, ventilation and noise levels. When welook at comfort holistically, it will become clear that the abovefactors affect one another, ventilation and acceptable temperature,for instance. A comfortable temperature will also dependon people’s level of activity and what they are wearing. Thereis no absolute optimal temperature defining comfort, but rathera range of temperatures known as the ‘comfort zone’, withinwhich most people will feel comfortable under defined conditions.Other factors that interact within the bedroom environmentsystem are bedroom temperature, ventilation and energyloss – arising out of guests opening their windows if too hot.The need for individual control of temperature and ventilationby the guest will be obvious.Operations managers have a responsibility for reducing toa minimum the risks to guests, other visitors and employeesfrom a variety of hazards. There are five groups of chemicalhazards:- toxic, for example herbicides and pesticides,- flammable (solvents and fuels),- explosive,- corrosive, and- infectious.Software may be used to create, update and monitor a databaseof all potentially harmful materials, chemicals and substances inthe hotel. In the UK, under the Chemicals (Hazard, Informationand Packaging) Regulation (CHIP) (1993), manufacturers of hazardouschemicals must provide data sheets giving the informationnecessary to build up such a database. The principle whichshould be applied to dangerous materials is that of substitutionwith a safer alternative or, if this is impossible, ensure that safehandling, use, storage and disposal procedures are in place.Air qualityPoor air quality can affect both the comfort and the health ofguests and staff. The parameters by which air quality maybe measured are (i) the proportion of normal air gases and(ii) pollutants. Concern has been expressed over the effectsof mechanical ventilation and air conditioning on indoor airquality. The competing claims of energy conservation and ventilationhave resulted in poor levels of the latter. This can resultin headaches, mucosal irritation of the eyes, nose, throat andrespiratory problems.The principal potential sources of air pollutants (Kirk 1996:89–90) are:- Combustion products, including gases such as carbon dioxide,nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide or hydrocarbons; andsuspended particulates from boilers, cooking stoves, vehicleengines, among others.- Chemical vapours from cleaning solvents, pesticides, paintsand varnishes, and photocopier emissions.- Building materials which may include toxic substances, forexample formaldehyde in foam insulation, textile finishes,pressed wood, fibre glass or mineral fibres, plasticizers,among others.

As well as continuing to publish Green Hotelier and thestandard work on this issue – Environmental Management forHotels – originally published in 1993, ITP is also publishingin 2007 Sustainable Hotel Siting and Design Guidelines. In additionit has developed a website that will easily enable hotelsto benchmark their environmental performance against othersimilar properties (www.benchmarkhotel.com). Finally it publishesa quick and easy checklist – Going Green – that enableshoteliers to adopt environmental polices and procedures.However, the principal accreditation scheme in this fieldis the internationally recognized ISO 14001 EnvironmentalManagement Standard. This has five core elements – policy,planning, implementation, checking and corrective action, andmanagement review. The Hong Kong Shangri-La became thefirst hotel in the Asia Pacific region to be awarded ISO 14001(Green Hotelier 1997b). In 2000, 8791 certificates were issued,but only 61 of these were to hotel and restaurant firms (Chanand Wong 2006). In their study of 164 hotels in southern Chinaand Macau, Chan and Wong (2006) investigated the motivationfor adopting this standard. They found that the two most importantinfluences were the corporate head office and legislation.Other accreditation schemes include the Green Globe certification(United States), the Green Gum Tree classification(Australia), the Green Leaf Award (Canada) and the GreenTourism Business Award (Scotland). But one of the challengesis the extent to which these schemes, along with benchmarking,are effective in helping the industry to become more environmentallyfriendly. Bohdanowicz et al. (2005) compare fourschemes and conclude that they differ with regard to geographicand climatic areas covered, types of facilities included,nature of environmental information required, benchmarkingmethods, user friendliness and implementation cost. They goon to arguing the case for an internationally agreed standardapproach to benchmarking.Chan and Wong’s (2006) study also suggested that small hospitalitybusinesses were less engaged with environmental issuesthan large chains. Brown’s (1996) study also found this, as didStabler and Goodall’s (1997) study of the hospitality sector on theisland of Guernsey. Stabler and Goodall (1997) also concludedthat external influences were most likely to change attitudesand behaviours. They strongly recommended action by centraland local government to achieve this, through grading schemes,building regulations, incentives, and leafing by example.Environmental managementThe application of systems theory2 is particularly relevantto the environment, since the natural world is made up of anumber of highly complex and interacting systems that havecome to be called the ‘ecosystem’. The purpose of an EMS is tomanage the exchange of materials between the operation – thatis to optimize inputs, processes and outputs. Much of environmentalmanagement is concerned with the nature of systemsoutputs, particularly those we consider as waste. However, itis becomingly increasingly clear that in order to manage theimpact on the environment, we need to consider not only theoutputs, but also the inputs and processes.

- Tobacco-smoking products. A number of places around theworld – New York, Ireland, and most recently England –have now introduced bans on smoking in public places.- Radon gas and radon products which can be released by thesoil beneath the building or by stone (especially granite),cement or brick building materials.- Methane gas from decomposition of any nearby landfillfacility or from leaks in the gas distribution system.- Water vapour which may result in high humidity and mildew,discoloration, odours and damage to materials.- Odours, both chemical and naturally arising odours fromhuman activity.- Asbestos, in older buildings, capable of producing asbestosisand cancers.- Dust and particulate matter, causing allergic reactions, damagingequipment and decor and increasing cleaning costs.- Airborne micro-organisms, such as Legionella pneumophilia,normally associated with moisture in air-conditioning andventilation systems.Air quality can be analysed by diagnostic screening to identifyproblems which can then be eliminated. Comments fromstaff and guests and objective measurements should be usedover a time frame, as single measures can be misleading. Thethree ways to improve air quality are to eliminate or reduce thepollutant source, filter or purify the air, and ventilate or dilutepollutants. Thereafter, monitoring and evaluation are essentialfor maintaining high air quality.NoiseThe most common sources of irritating noise are traffic, includingaircraft, construction, industry and production, and otherhuman activities such as entertainment and sport. Noise canhave many effects on the health of guests and employees, frommigraines to sleeplessness. Noise can also impair employees’creative and productive performance. New hospitalitybusinesses should be designed to physically separate noiseproducing activities from noise-sensitive ones. Existing hospitalitybusinesses should carry out a noise audit, based partlyon an analysis of complaints, and take steps to change proceduresand, where necessary, invest in noise control measures.LightThe properties and quality of light available within differentareas of a hotel or restaurant have important effects onthe overall experience of guests/customers and the efficiencyof staff. The intensity of light for detailed work should bebetween 500 and 1000 lux (or lumen per square metre), ameasure of ‘illuminance’. Only 200–300 lux is necessary fornon-detailed work. Corridors and public areas require an illuminanceof between 100 and 250 lux. Within bedrooms, theoverall illuminance will vary according to the number of lightingunits, and the most important factor is the degree of controlthat the guest has over lighting.Artificial light can cause distortions, for example in thecolour of foods, and therefore lighting effects must be tested.Types of fluorescent lighting, in particular, must be tested withfurnishings, crockery and food to check for any undesirablecolour distortion.

There is always a danger that the focus is on the wrong subsystemor system component. What happened in the case ofpollution control was an exclusive concentration on treatingundesirable outputs through pollution control – an expensiveoption. However, it was later recognized that looking at inputsand processes, which themselves contain hidden pollutioncosts, and innovating to eliminate all undesirable pollution(pollution prevention) can be more effective. Pollution is notsimply an inevitable outcome, but a symptom. The cause maybe close in time and space, for example the production process;or more remote, for instance a design flaw; or both.Planning and designing ‘green’ buildingsSome articles have expressed the view that the whole economicand business system has to be redesigned to integratewith the natural environment. They advocate the redesign orstart up of a business so that it does maintain a holistic relationshipbetween economy and ecology, and is not thereforelimited to ‘end-of-pipe’ remedies such as reducing existingemissions. Many companies in the hospitality industry haveattempted the design or redesign approach.Apart from hospitals, hotels have the highest environmentalimpact of commercial buildings due to the amounts of energy,water and other resources they consume every day of theyear. Indeed, the construction industry, in general, consumeshalf of the resources produced on the planet every year, andis directly and indirectly responsible for about 40% of emissions(Rada 1996). One of the most obvious commercial advantagesof environmentally designing a new hotel or restaurantis that it will have lower operating costs than a conventionallydesigned structure. Rada (1996) suggests that the main principlesof environmental design are:- minimizing the use of resources, the advantages of which cascadedown into reduced maintenance and technical equipmentcosts;- thinking of a building as a complete system rather than as a collectionof engineering disciplines; and- multifunctional use of parts, features and systems which havethe twin advantages of reducing costs and increasingfunctionality.Stipanuk (1996) reports that even in 1954, Statler HotelsCorporation was building properties designed with a ‘consciousconsideration of recycling, use of daylight for lightingrestaurant space, reuse of guest linens, a minimization of materialsin construction, and reductions in energy usage’. Todayhotels may be constructed and operated completely with theenvironment in mind, as with the Orchid Hotel in India (Jones2002). Whilst renewable sources of energy are desirable, thereare some constraints. Solar power is particularly suitable fornew hotels in sunny climes, and other renewables are available(derived from the wind, hydroelectric, wave, tidal andgeothermal power), but currently they account for only a verysmall proportion of the world’s energy supplies.

Non-ionizing radiationThe most common sources of radiation in hotel operations aremicrowave radiation from microwave ovens, visible radiationassociated with lasers in printers and ultraviolet radiation usedin sun beds. Radioactivity (ionizing radiation) is rarely foundin hospitality businesses, other than emissions of the radioactiveelement radon from certain types of building materials.Microwave radiation in the form of heat can affect the eyes, givingsymptoms similar to a cataract. Regular checks on microwaveovens for leakage should be carried out to ensure thatany exposure is below the recommended maximum exposurelevel of 100 W/m2. Laser printers which use lasers have built-inprotection against this form of radiation which can damage theretina of the eye and burn the skin. Staff should be trained tolimit their maintenance activities to that recommended in thehandbook and leave repairs to the manufacturer.Water managementFresh water is becoming increasingly scarce, and conservationmust be a high priority for all managers. There are severalreasons why hospitality operations managers focus on themanagement of water consumption and water quality. Theseinclude:- waste water reduces the supply of what is often a scarceresource and adds to the hotel’s costs;- a waste of hot water is also a waste of energy;- poor quality water supplies may pose a health risk to customersand employees;- poor quality water often adds to the running and maintenancecosts of equipment and reduces its life;- contaminated waste water is a hazard to the health of otherstakeholders in the community and increases the load oneffluent plants.Water qualityEvaporated water is pure, but it then becomes contaminatedwith impurities as it passes through the ‘water cycle’, forinstance the nitrate-based chemicals from fertilizers which mayonly emerge from deep underground supplies up to a decadelater. Other contaminants include phosphates and the acidrain that results from absorption of the sulphur dioxide in theatmosphere. Rivers are also used for waste disposal which mayaccidentally rise to danger levels, despite stringent precautions,regulations and ‘lateral thinking’ solutions such as makingcompanies draw their water from downstream. For all thesereasons, water is usually treated before being used for drinkingand cooking. In addition to rivers and lakes (natural andartificial), water supplies come from wells which tap naturalgroundwater that has accumulated through seepage in undergroundstructures called aquifers. In many areas, demand isexceeding natural supply and aquifer water levels are falling.Utility companies provide most hospitality businesses withtheir water supply, though wells bored into aquifers may bethe source in remote areas. Within the UK, cold water suppliesfor drinking and cooking are taken direct from the main supply.For all other purposes, the source will be an intermediatestorage tank within the property, containing either cold or hotwater. Note that the removal of waste water is controlled bylocal regulations. Roof and site drainage water is usually separatedfrom sanitary waste, and kitchen waste is often passedthrough grease filters before entering the waste system.

Environmental management systems characteristicsThe characteristics of an EMS are:- A written policy statement- A set of targets against which to measure progress- Agreed specific actions- Monitoring results against targetsAn EMS requires to be ‘fed’ from a variety of sources,including internal subsystems and the external environment.Some of these may be considered as ‘tools’ of environmentalmanagement which provide feedback. The EMS then respondsto this feedback. There is a need ‘to establish structures andnorms which will ensure that environmental performance isimproved over time’. This may be achieved through the organizationfirst assessing its own performance and then respondingto that data by setting benchmarks (Stainer and Stainer1997). Just as the implementation of a TQM programmerequires the full support of top management, so does an EMS.Indeed, those organizations that have already implementedTQM find it easier not only to meet legal requirements but alsoto integrate ‘total quality environmental management’ intotheir TQM system.An EMS may be seen as hierarchy, starting with, at the highestlevel of the organization, a policy statement. Below this willbe operational systems which impact on the day-to-day managementof all of the areas of a hospitality business: purchasing,food production, food service, rooms division, maintenance,transport and so on. Achievements against targets will be measuredagainst a regular audit of environmental performance.The environmental policy and mission statements *All employees have to play their part in moving the organizationtowards sustainable development. The productionand dissemination of clear environmental policy and missionstatements, endorsed by senior management, is essential.These must include specific and attainable goals and targets,including performance targets, and details of the arrangementsfor monitoring, control and communication. The policystatement should also clarify responsibilities. Whether issuedas a new policy statement or incorporated into the company’smission statement, the environmental initiative must be linkedto action and targets. Hence, in larger companies, a specificenvironmental manager or co-ordinator is probably needed toensure the environmental strategy is implemented.While no responsible company would aim at minimumtargets, it is important to know what these are. Naturally, theorganization has to meet local and national legal requirementsand may wish to incorporate the requirements of a standardsuch as ISO 14001. Any existing company standards will haveto be incorporated in the new policy, and the standards usedby suppliers and recommended by trade bodies may alsoinfluence policy. A policy should:- be brief, maximum two pages- be such that it is understood by, and communicated to, alllevels of the company- be available to the public

Most water supplies have been treated by the utility companybefore reaching the hotel, though those using wells willneed on-site treatment. Quality levels are related to intendeduse. Thus lower-quality water may be used in WCs and forgardening purposes, but non-potable and potable suppliesmust be physically isolated to prevent contamination. Thereare three classes of pollutants: chemical, such as lead, aluminium,nitrates and pesticide residues and chemicals causing‘hardness’; bacteriological, as indicated by the presence ofcoliform bacteria and removed by chlorine-based disinfectants;and organoleptic factors (affecting taste, smell or colour).An action plan on water quality should include settingappropriate standards, for both the operation and its location;maintenance and monitoring of the property’s water plant; andassessment of the performance of the plant, especially withregard to potential sources of stagnant water. Issues that mightneed to be addressed could include contamination by airborneparticles, infestation by insects and rodents and the selectionof additional in-house water treatment measures. Commondefects and their treatment include the filtration of suspendedsolids, desalination, water softening, chlorination to removebacterial contamination, and filtration through an active carbonfilter to remove odours and improve taste. Particular careis needed to ensure Legionella pneumophilia cannot survive.Control of water consumptionWater costs account for typically 15–20% of a property’s outgoingsof a hotel’s overall utilities bill. Hot water wastage ismore costly due to associated energy loss. Reducing water lossmust not be at the expense of the comfort of guests, unless theyspecifically agree to certain measures. It has been estimated thatthe average hotel can reduce its water bill by 40%. The mainsavings come from managing flushing systems which accountfor 33% of total water usage, compared to only 3% for drinkingor preparing food. The used water may be treated and reusedin non-contact areas such as toilet cisterns and gardening(International Tourism Partnership 2007). This is called a greywater recycling system and is quite invisible to the customer.Other savings may be made through rainwater harvesting andself-closing taps, and through adapted shower-heads whichreduce water usage while maintaining customer satisfaction.Control of water consumption is accomplished by assessingcurrent performance through conducting a water use auditwhich relates the measure of water consumption to the timeof year and the hotel’s level of business and gives a detailedevaluation of efficiency. The performance is then comparedwith previous figures for the hotel or those of other hospitalitybusinesses.

- include a commitment to progressively reducing areas ofenvironmental impact- include a commitment to meet all current legislation- aim to go beyond legal compliance- indicate that individuals will be assigned directresponsibility- indicate that an auditing programme will be set up to measurethe implementation of the policy- have a commitment to review the policy after a specifiedperiod- be consistent with health and safety policies of the companyA possible model for effective environmental performanceappraisal, in the form of a continuous loop, is given in Table 17.1.Table 17.1 The environmental performance appraisal model1. Define the environmental context and objectives2. Identify potential measures3. Select appropriate measures4. Set targets5. Implement measures6. Monitor and communicate results7. Act on results8. ReviewSource: James and Bennett (1994).The environmental audit *The term ‘audit’ is usually associated with finance, and a financialaudit involves the application of rigid rules. By contrast,environmental auditing is based on balancing of facts and values,rather than just on financial measures. The purpose of anenvironmental audit (EA) is to assess the performance of anorganization against prescribed targets related to inputs, processesand outputs.- Input measures include indicators, targets and measures ofplant efficiency, materials quality and recyclability. It may beseen as much broader than simply material input and mightinclude, for example, the effectiveness of training staff.- Process measures aim at percentage improvements in reducingwaste in stock holding, processing and packaging.- Output measures record impact on, or damage to, the community,including waste, emissions and pollution.Clearly, such an audit on the whole organization must be carriedout at regular intervals, feeding back internal informationfor control of the EMS. As we shall see, audits of subsystemsof the EMS, such as those of specific resources – water, energyand so on – feed back into policies relating to the specific management of these resources.Energy managementHotels were forced to look for energy economies when thecost of oil soared in 1973–1974. The American Hotel and MotelAssociation conducted annual surveys of energy usage between1977 and 1984, which showed reductions of 35% over this period(Stipanuk 1996). Hotels use more energy, in terms of dollars persquare metre, than industrial buildings, naturally ventilatedoffices and schools. The benefits of good energy managementto the environment include conservation through a reduction inthe use of non-renewable energy resources, and also a diminishingof atmospheric pollution, global warming, ozone depletionand acid rain.

Comparisons with other hospitality businesses’water consumption, obtained in cubic metres per customerper year by dividing the annual consumption of water by theaverage number of guests per day for the year, can provide abasis for benchmarking. However, in such comparisons, specificfactors affecting consumption, such as indoor laundriesand swimming pools must be taken into account. This wasfound to be the case in a study of water usage in 17 hotels inHong Kong (Deng and Burnett 2002). They measured consumptionby cubic metres per floor area (m3/m2) and foundthat this varied widely from 2.1 m3/m2 up to 7.7 m3/m2. Thiswas largely due to whether or not the hotel had an in-houselaundry, the average for the 10 hotels that did so being muchhigher than those without this facility. They also found thataverage water usage was highest in five star hotels and lowestin three star properties. Specific action that can be takenincludes (International Tourism Partnership 2007):- Change routines, for example reduce wash/rinse cycle inlaundry- Check regularly for leaks from cisterns, taps, pipes andbasins- Fit water-saving devices or sensors in kitchens, bedroomsand public washroomsGreen marketingMarketing has been blamed for contributing to environmentaldamage simply because it produces increased consumption,particularly of raw materials. There has therefore beenan increasing emphasis on the social dimension of marketing,often in response to consumer concerns. There is a sense inwhich customer needs must be viewed holistically over time.Marketing decisions in future will have to take account of ecologicalfactors if sustainable development is to become a reality.Welford (1994: 26) asserts that it is in this functional area(of marketing) that a company’s commitment to sustainabilitywill be judged, particularly by the consumer and wider public.Some companies, such as Scandic Hotels, The Body Shopand Tescos, have been proactive, rather than reactive, and thisis likely to become a trend.Gustin and Weaver’s (1996) study is one of the few toinvestigate consumers’ perspectives. They found that 73% ofrespondents considered themselves environmentally mindedand 71% were positive about staying in ecofriendly properties.Hence marketing may have to be part of a company’s holisticapproach to environmental management. Despite consumerpressure relating to the environment, firms will also have torecognize that consumers’ wants do not always coincide withthe long-term interests of the environment. This challenge canbe met, at least in part, by marketing strategies that educateand inform on environmental issues and benefits.Although some experts stress exclusively the rights andexpectations of shareholders (Reinhardt 1999), businesses willincreasingly have to meet the demands of other stakeholders,such as customers, employees and the local community. For thisreason, it is necessary to make public part at least of the resultsof the EA. However, consumers may not always be supportiveof green initiatives. Manaktola and Jauhari (2007) studied consumersusing hotel services in India and how conscious theywere of environmentally friendly practices. They found consumerswould prefer to use lodging that follows these practicesbut were not willing to pay extra for these services. Despitethis, there is likely to be an upsurge in green branding.

The principle of energy management is to minimize theamount and cost of energy used by the hotel without any perceivedloss of comfort to the guests unless this is done with theirconsent, for instance if they agree that they do not need freshtowels every day. Deng and Burnett (2000) studied the energyperformance in 16 quality hotels in Hong Kong. An averageEnergy Use Index (EUI) based on unit floor area was derived forthese properties using energy consumption data for 1995. Thebreakdown of energy use showed that electricity dominatedtotal energy consumption and that, on average, about one-thirdof total energy was used for air conditioning. A number of factorsthat affect the energy use in hotel buildings, such as year ofconstruction, hotel class, among others, were reviewed. The difficultiesin assessing hotel-building energy performance werealso discussed, and methods for adequately evaluating energyperformance for hotel buildings were proposed.Energy in existing buildings may be saved by implementingthe following measures (Kirk 1996; International TourismPartnership 2007):- A review of the mix of energy sources used;- A review of tariffs used or other contractual arrangementswith energy supply companies;- Staff training leading to practical steps that can be taken toreduce energy consumption;- A programme of capital investment on the building, plantand equipment in order to reduce energy consumption;- Checking and maintaining all equipment regularly;- Implementing low-cost measures such as energy-efficientlight bulbs and motion detectors;- Improve insulation;- Use bicycles or other environmentally friendly vehiclesaround resort properties.A study of 158 hotels in Greece (Santamouris et al. 1996)found that the annual average total energy consumption was273 kWh/m2. This was a very high level compared with othertypes of building. Based on simulations, it was estimated that20% savings could be made by making changes to the building’souter envelope, heating and cooling systems, and lighting.In comparison, Chan (2005) investigated energy usage in17 hotels located in the subtropics and found annual energyusage to be 313 kWh/m2, nearly 40% more than the Greekproperties. However, this was an improvement on an earlierstudy of 17 hotels in Hong Kong (Chan and Lam 2002) whichreported consumption of 342 kWh/m2.The energy management programme *For the programme to be successful, someone within the hospitalitybusiness should be given managerial responsibility forenergy use. In many cases this will be the individual responsiblefor both building and maintenance and possibly thetotal environmental management programme. Staff may alsobe designated to collect energy data (International TourismPartnership 2007). Alternatively, some hospitality businesseshave outsourced their energy management to a contract company,to exploit their expertise and economies of scale.The first step in any energy management programme is anenergy audit. By analysing and evaluating historic recordsand hotel statistics, a measure of the energy performance ofthe entire building can be obtained. Deng and Burnett (2000)studied the energy performance of 16 hotels in Hong Kong.

This may be by chains, such as the subtle highlighting of ‘eco’ in the Grecotel chain’s logo (Konopka 1998). Alternatively this maybe through awards given by professional bodies (such as theGreen Globe scheme) or by local tourism organizations (such asthe Scottish Tourist Boards Green Tourism Business Award).Environmental management issues and trendsSuch is the complexity and regional diversity of the global hospitality industry that it is very difficult to identify clear trends(Jones 1999). Indeed the very word ‘trends’ implies a degree ofstability which is rapidly being supplanted by ‘complexity’ or‘chaos’. Nevertheless, the International Tourism Partnership(2007) is clearly shifting ‘environmentalism’ into sustainability.It therefore proposes that operators should work with theirsuppliers to green the supply chain. Part of this is to workmuch more closely with local suppliers to reduce transportemissions (and costs). Linked to this are links with local peopleand communities, so that they too benefit from the hotel development.Finally, operators should ‘maintain a “sense of place”that supports the geographic character of a place – its environment,culture, heritage, aesthetics, and the well-being of its citizens’(International Tourism Partnership 2007).Although some people in the hospitality industry taketheir environmental responsibilities very seriously, others areonly willing to act if there is some compulsion. Legislation isbeing, and will continue to be, used to change the behaviourof businesses. For example, in the UK we have seen legislationon waste disposal, on energy use and on reduction in theuse of packaging materials. These have all affected the hospitalityindustry. Wan Yim King Penny’s (2007) study of hotelsin Macau revealed that low customer demand, poor environmentalknowledge and the lack of governmental regulationsenforcing environmental practices are the reasons hinderinghoteliers in Macau from practicing green polices. But the majorbarrier was that hotel managers do not recognize the importanceof environmental management to hotel effectiveness andcompetitiveness. Consequently, hotels were only interestedin improving areas where there are direct financial gains andwhere there is a fiscal/legislative requirement. A fragmentedapproach to managing their environmental performance hasresulted.This approach is reactive rather than proactive and does notaddress the added value of environmental management. Toooften, managers adopt a ‘cost effective’ consideration of compliance,rather than a ‘cost-benefit’ or ‘value added’ approach.There is no encouragement either to go beyond strict compliance,or to attempt to influence future legislation. The guidelinessuggested by Piasecki et al. (1999) are therefore neitherholistic nor entrepreneurial. The language of compliance usedby Piasecki is that of the manager seeking only to minimizethe costs of this inconvenience without extinguishing a creativeapproach to other aspects of the business. These weaknessesarise from an unimaginative response to regulationwhich is perceived purely in terms of cost. By contrast, theentrepreneur, or enlightened senior manager, actively seekscompetitive advantages from the creative use of imposed legislationand regulation, and attempts to influence other stakeholdersand competitors and to influence future legislationin alignment with the company’s environmental investmentprogramme.

They found that the age of the building, star rating and occupancyhad no impact on usage. However, they strongly recommendedseparating guest floors and non-guest floors forassessing energy performance. The energy performance ofindividual departments, such as restaurants, bars and kitchens,may require specific investment in sub-metering. Anothercomplication is that comparisons can only be made if the unitsof energy are standardized to kWh (kilo-Watt hours). In estimatingcosts, account must be taken of the differing price perkilo-Watt hours of the various sources of energy used and oftheir relative efficiency.The energy audit should provide:- energy consumption and cost data for up to five years;- frequent meter readings to show day-time, night-time andweekend energy consumption;- an inventory of all energy-consuming equipment showingage, power loading and maintenance record, together withdata on frequency of useAs with an EA, an energy audit requires the full involvementof employees. It will show where the energy is being spent, andenergy-saving opportunities. It should also quantify achievableenergy targets. However, it is important to note that energyperformance indicators are meaningless without having anexternal comparator, such as the equivalent for other hospitalitybusinesses and industry average data. Care must be takenin comparing one hotel with another as there are many factorsassociated with the construction, location and operation of ahotel that can affect energy consumption, for example facilitieslike leisure centres and swimming pools, and air conditioning.Materials and waste managementCummings (1992) clearly articulated the ‘urgent’ need forsolid waste minimization in the hospitality industry. A wastemanagement scheme will reduce the amount of waste produced,partly through recycling, where feasible, and thus alsomake savings in resources such as time, materials and money.For economic reasons, such a scheme will concentrate first onachieving maximum waste minimization and only then on disposalof the residual waste. As in other environmental managementprogrammes, problems must be viewed holistically, wastemanagement being perceived as a process affecting all stages ofan operation from design to production and aimed at maximizingthe value of all resources.Every employee must make their personal contribution towaste management, including product and services designers,those responsible for purchasing, stock control, operations andsales management, with the aim of achieving the best possiblefinancial return.As with other environmental management programmes, thefirst stage is the design of a waste audit. It is, however, inevitablethat some waste will occur, unless there is appropriate, local,multi-sector co-operation to close the waste loop. Managementof this waste must be carried out within the constraints of thehotel’s legal duty of care in a prioritized manner as follows:1. re-use the material if possible;2. if not, collect and separate waste streams for possiblerecycling;

Hospitality businesses can only optimize their contributionto global sustainability through local and regional co-operation.Welford (1994: 28–29) advocates the development of environmentalnetworks, including multi-sector networks, amongstsmall businesses, voluntary organizations and the public sector.As other companies, through promotion, become aware ofbest practice in this kind of initiative, expanding numbers ofsuch networks will enable controlled and sustainable growthto occur. Rivera’s (2004) study in Costa Rica aimed to identifyhow institutional forces, such as regulatory and stakeholderpressures, are related to proactive environmental behaviour byhotel facilities participating in the Certification for SustainableTourism, a voluntary environmental programme established bythe Costa Rican government. This programme was among thefirst third-party performance-based environmental certificationinitiatives implemented in the developing world. The studysuggested that voluntary environmental programmes thatinclude performance-based standards and third-party monitoringmay be effective in promoting beyond-compliance environmentalbehaviour when they are ‘complemented by isomorphicinstitutional pressures exerted by government environmentalmonitoring and trade association membership’ (Rivera 2004).The International Tourism Partnership is another example ofco-operation within one industry, based on sharing of environmentalinformation and examples of best practice. The WorldCommission on Environment and Development is an exampleof an initiative to introduce inter-sectoral and international cooperation.However, to meet the global environmental challenge,there will need to be a meeting of minds, a consensusworldview on the integration of economics and the environment.A fundamentally new paradigm relating to economicsand development is difficult for many economists and businessexperts to accept. However, the 2007 Stern Report clearlydemonstrated the economic and business impacts of globalwarming and the need for positive action, and it may well leadto a fundamental paradigm shift.Summary and conclusionsEnvironmental management is concerned with all aspectsof the operation, starting with the inputs to the business, thedesign and management of all processes and the output orwaste from the system. Environmental management shouldstart, first with a policy statement and then an audit, to establishcurrent performance. This usually leads to a number ofplanned and measurable changes, designed to improve performance with regard to energy management, materials andwaste, water management and indoor environment.Although hospitality businesses were fairly slow to get intoenvironmental management, a number of high-profile initiativeshave promoted environmental awareness. A number ofcountries and/or regions have also developed environmentalawards or grading schemes as a means of promoting theirinitiatives. In the future, it is likely that we will see more ofthese developments, pressured by inter-governmental agreements.

Gustin, M. E. and Weaver, P. A. (1996) Are hotels prepared forthe environmental consumer? Hospitality Research Journal, 20,2, 1–14International Tourism Partnership (2007) Retrieved on 22October, from http://www.tourismpartnership.org/pages07/Practical_Solutions.htmlIwanowski, K. and Rushmore, C. (1994) Introducing the ecofriendlyhotel, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant AdministrationQuarterly, 35, 1, 34–38James, P. and Bennett, M. (1994) Environmental-RelatedPerformance Measurement in Business: From Emissions to Profitand Sustainability? Ashridge Management Research Group:BerkhamstedJones, P. (1999) Operational issues and trends in the hospitalityindustry, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18,4, 427–442Jones. P. (2002) The Orchid Hotel, Tourism and HospitalityResearch, 3, 3, 277–280Kirk, D. (1996) Environmental Management for Hotels,Butterworth-Heinemann: OxfordKirk, D. (1998) Attitudes to environmental management heldby a group of hotel managers in Edinburgh, InternationalJournal of Hospitality Management, 17, 1, 33–47Konopka, C. (1998, October 15) The greening of Grecotel,Caterer and Hotelkeeper, 32–33Manaktola, K. and Jauhari, V. (2007) Exploring consumer attitudeand behaviour towards green practices in the lodgingindustry in India, International Journal of ContemporaryHospitality Management, 19, 5, 364–377Piasecki, B. W., Fletcher, K. A. and Mendelson, F. J. (1999)Environmental Management and Business Strategy: LeadershipSkills for the 21st Century, Wiley: New YorkPricewaterhouseCoopers (2001) Hospitality Directions – EuropeEdition, PWC: LondonRada, J. (1996) Designing and building eco-efficient hotels,Green Hotelier, 4, 10–11Reinhardt, F. L. (1999) Bringing the environment down toearth, Harvard Business Review, 77, 4, 149–157Rivera, J. (2004) Institutional pressures and voluntary environmentalbehavior in developing countries: evidence from theCosta Rican hotel industry, Society and Natural Resources, 17,9, 763–857

However, many companies are at an early stage ofdevelopment. Initially it is often possible to link environmentalmanagement with financial savings. Plans that result in lowerconsumption of energy or water or reduced costs of waste disposalare relatively easy to sell to the boards of companies.Beyond those changes, others may cost money to implement,with less tangible returns, often based on hard-to-quantifymarketing or public relations benefits. This differentiates thosecompanies that only respond to a business case from those thattake an ethical stance on environmentalism and sustainability.ReferencesBall, S., Jones, P., Kirk, D. and Lockwood, A. (2002) Hospitalityand Operating Systems, Continuum LondonBohdanowicz, P., Siminic, B. and Martinac, I. (2005) Sustainablehotels – environmental reporting according to Green Globe21, Green Globes Canada/GEM UK, IHEI Benchmarkingand Hilton environmental reporting, The 2005 WorldSustainable Building Conference, Tokyo, 27–29 SeptemberBrown, M. (1996) Environmental policy in the hotel sector:“green” strategy or stratagem? International Journal ofContemporary Hospitality Management, 8, 3, 18–23Chan, W. W. (2005) Predicting and saving the consumptionof electricity in sub-tropical hotels, International Journal ofContemporary Hospitality Management, 17, 3, 228–237Chan, W. W. and Lam, J. C. (2002) Prediction of pollutant emissionthrough electricity consumption by the hotel industry inHong Kong, International Journal of Hospitality Management,21, 4, 381–391Chan, E. S. W. and Wong, S. C. K. (2006) Motivations for ISO14001 in the hotel industry, Tourism Management, 27, 481–492Clements-Hunt, P. (1995) Asia on stream, Green Hotelier, 1, 6–7Cummings, L. E. (1992) Hospitality solid waste minimisation: aglobal frame, International Journal of Hospitality Management,11, 3, 255–267Deng, S. M. and Burnett, J. (2000) A study of energy performanceof hotel buildings in Hong Kong, Energy and Buildings,31, 1, 7–12Deng, S.-M. and Burnett, J. (2002) Water use in Hong KongHotels, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 1,57–66Green Hotelier (1997a) Scandic opens ‘recyclable’ hotel, GreenHotelier, 8, 6Green Hotelier (1997b) Shangri-La’s path to ISO 14001, GreenHotelier, 8, 30–31Green Hotelier (1998) Members profile – Hilton International,Accor, Bass hotels, Inter-Continental hotels, Starwood hotels,Manarin Oriental hotels, Marriott international, Forte hotels,Marco Polo hotels, Radisson SAS hotels, Scandic hotels, TheIndian Company of hotels, Green Hotelier, 12, 12–25

3. if this is not possible and the material has potential energyvalue, contribute it to local incineration or power generationschemes;4. if none of the above options are possible, consign to a landfillsite.A holistic approach to waste management must take accountof waste which is not measurable as an ‘output’, for examplethe excessive use of detergents and cleaning fluids. This is oftencalled ‘invisible waste’ and can be detected by means of a morecomprehensive input–output analysis, combined with measuresof efficiency, including comparisons with other hospitalitybusinesses in a chain or industry standards. Particular attentionshould be paid to levels of food waste. Around 15.5% of ediblefood has been found to be wasted in hotels and restaurants(Ball et al. 2002). Paper is another commodity where waste canbe minimized by reducing consumption, re-use and recyclingwhere necessary. An analysis of present use, including purchasesand waste, should yield some solutions to the problem.The advantages to the environment of recycling are obvious.However, there are also financial advantages, including areduction of the cost of waste disposal and the cash value ofsome of the products of recycling. Table 17.2 identifies somecommon recyclable materials and the resulting products.Many hospitality businesses throughout the world are stillusing refrigeration systems which predate the new generation ofCFC- and HCFC-free units, despite international initiatives andlegal sanctions. Technological advances have produced alternativesto these hazardous chemicals which are cheaper and moreefficient and it is now a relatively easy task for maintenance engineersto carry out the necessary conversion. As already noted, safecollection and disposal of the CFCs and HCFCs is essential sothat the gases do not escape into the atmosphere. Clearly, whenbuying new refrigeration units or air-conditioning plant, managersshould buy only CFC- and HCFC-free equipment. Energysavings of 10–50% are possible with modern equipment.Table 17.2 Recyclable materialsAluminium, for example cans and foils with high waste value, made into new aluminium products.   Steel cans: the tin coating is removed and the steel melted down for steel-based products.    Paper: separated into differing qualities; the high-grade paper is treated and made into boxboard, tissue, printing and writing paper, newsprint and liner board.    Glass: usually clear glass is separated from coloured glass. The glass is crushed and treated, then melted, the molten glass being made into new containers, fibre glass or glass beads for reflective paint.    Plastic: plastic goods require careful sorting. The plastic can then be melted and remoulded into drainpipes, insulation, rope, carpet backing and many other goods.    Frying oil: this has a commercial value and may be collected by manufacturers for a variety of uses, including the base for cosmetics.    Source: Kirk (1996: 117–118).Management of the indoor environmentThe indoor environment comprises air quality and levels oflighting and noise. These can impact upon the comfort, healthand well-being of customers. Each country will have its ownregulations covering health and safety. In the UK, the Healthand Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Health and Safety at WorkRegulations 1992 provide the main legal requirements. Theseare supplemented by the Control of Substances Hazardous toHealth Regulations 1988. The UK regulations cover, in particular,the dangers of occupational lung diseases caused by exposureto dust, smoke and chemicals.

Santamouris, M., Balaras, C. A., Dascalaki, E., Argiriou, A.and Gaglia, A. (1996) Energy conservation and retrofittingpotential in Hellenic hotels, Energy and Buildings, 24, 1,65–75Stabler, M. J. and Goodall, B. (1997) Environmental awareness,action and performance in the Guernsey hospitality sector,Tourism Management, 18, 1, 19–33Stainer, A. and Stainer, L. (1997) Ethical dimensions ofenvironmental management, European Business Review, 97, 5,224–230Stipanuk, D. M. (1996) The U.S. lodging industry and theenvironment, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant AdministrationQuarterly, 37, 5, 39–45UN (United Nations) (1992) Report of the UN Conference onEnvironment and Development, General Assembly ResolutionA/RES/47/190, UN: New YorkWan Yim King Penny (2007) The use of environmental managementas a facilities management tool in the Macao hotelsector, Facilities, 25, 7/8, 286–295WCED (The World Commission on Environmental andDevelopment) (1987) Our Common Future (The BruntlandReport), Oxford University Press: OxfordWelford, R. (1994) Cases in Environmental Management andBusiness Strategy, Pitman Publishing: London

Comfort is a subjective experience even though attemptsmay be made to measure it objectively in terms of temperature,purity of air, humidity, ventilation and noise levels. When welook at comfort holistically, it will become clear that the abovefactors affect one another, ventilation and acceptable temperature,for instance. A comfortable temperature will also dependon people’s level of activity and what they are wearing. Thereis no absolute optimal temperature defining comfort, but rathera range of temperatures known as the ‘comfort zone’, withinwhich most people will feel comfortable under defined conditions.Other factors that interact within the bedroom environmentsystem are bedroom temperature, ventilation and energyloss – arising out of guests opening their windows if too hot.The need for individual control of temperature and ventilationby the guest will be obvious.Operations managers have a responsibility for reducing toa minimum the risks to guests, other visitors and employeesfrom a variety of hazards. There are five groups of chemicalhazards:- toxic, for example herbicides and pesticides,- flammable (solvents and fuels),- explosive,- corrosive, and- infectious.Software may be used to create, update and monitor a databaseof all potentially harmful materials, chemicals and substances inthe hotel. In the UK, under the Chemicals (Hazard, Informationand Packaging) Regulation (CHIP) (1993), manufacturers of hazardouschemicals must provide data sheets giving the informationnecessary to build up such a database. The principle whichshould be applied to dangerous materials is that of substitutionwith a safer alternative or, if this is impossible, ensure that safehandling, use, storage and disposal procedures are in place.Air qualityPoor air quality can affect both the comfort and the health ofguests and staff. The parameters by which air quality maybe measured are (i) the proportion of normal air gases and(ii) pollutants. Concern has been expressed over the effectsof mechanical ventilation and air conditioning on indoor airquality. The competing claims of energy conservation and ventilationhave resulted in poor levels of the latter. This can resultin headaches, mucosal irritation of the eyes, nose, throat andrespiratory problems.The principal potential sources of air pollutants (Kirk 1996:89–90) are:- Combustion products, including gases such as carbon dioxide,nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide or hydrocarbons; andsuspended particulates from boilers, cooking stoves, vehicleengines, among others.- Chemical vapours from cleaning solvents, pesticides, paintsand varnishes, and photocopier emissions.- Building materials which may include toxic substances, forexample formaldehyde in foam insulation, textile finishes,pressed wood, fibre glass or mineral fibres, plasticizers,among others.

- Tobacco-smoking products. A number of places around theworld – New York, Ireland, and most recently England –have now introduced bans on smoking in public places.- Radon gas and radon products which can be released by thesoil beneath the building or by stone (especially granite),cement or brick building materials.- Methane gas from decomposition of any nearby landfillfacility or from leaks in the gas distribution system.- Water vapour which may result in high humidity and mildew,discoloration, odours and damage to materials.- Odours, both chemical and naturally arising odours fromhuman activity.- Asbestos, in older buildings, capable of producing asbestosisand cancers.- Dust and particulate matter, causing allergic reactions, damagingequipment and decor and increasing cleaning costs.- Airborne micro-organisms, such as Legionella pneumophilia,normally associated with moisture in air-conditioning andventilation systems.Air quality can be analysed by diagnostic screening to identifyproblems which can then be eliminated. Comments fromstaff and guests and objective measurements should be usedover a time frame, as single measures can be misleading. Thethree ways to improve air quality are to eliminate or reduce thepollutant source, filter or purify the air, and ventilate or dilutepollutants. Thereafter, monitoring and evaluation are essentialfor maintaining high air quality.NoiseThe most common sources of irritating noise are traffic, includingaircraft, construction, industry and production, and otherhuman activities such as entertainment and sport. Noise canhave many effects on the health of guests and employees, frommigraines to sleeplessness. Noise can also impair employees’creative and productive performance. New hospitalitybusinesses should be designed to physically separate noiseproducing activities from noise-sensitive ones. Existing hospitalitybusinesses should carry out a noise audit, based partlyon an analysis of complaints, and take steps to change proceduresand, where necessary, invest in noise control measures.LightThe properties and quality of light available within differentareas of a hotel or restaurant have important effects onthe overall experience of guests/customers and the efficiencyof staff. The intensity of light for detailed work should bebetween 500 and 1000 lux (or lumen per square metre), ameasure of ‘illuminance’. Only 200–300 lux is necessary fornon-detailed work. Corridors and public areas require an illuminanceof between 100 and 250 lux. Within bedrooms, theoverall illuminance will vary according to the number of lightingunits, and the most important factor is the degree of controlthat the guest has over lighting.Artificial light can cause distortions, for example in thecolour of foods, and therefore lighting effects must be tested.Types of fluorescent lighting, in particular, must be tested withfurnishings, crockery and food to check for any undesirablecolour distortion.

Non-ionizing radiationThe most common sources of radiation in hotel operations aremicrowave radiation from microwave ovens, visible radiationassociated with lasers in printers and ultraviolet radiation usedin sun beds. Radioactivity (ionizing radiation) is rarely foundin hospitality businesses, other than emissions of the radioactiveelement radon from certain types of building materials.Microwave radiation in the form of heat can affect the eyes, givingsymptoms similar to a cataract. Regular checks on microwaveovens for leakage should be carried out to ensure thatany exposure is below the recommended maximum exposurelevel of 100 W/m2. Laser printers which use lasers have built-inprotection against this form of radiation which can damage theretina of the eye and burn the skin. Staff should be trained tolimit their maintenance activities to that recommended in thehandbook and leave repairs to the manufacturer.Water managementFresh water is becoming increasingly scarce, and conservationmust be a high priority for all managers. There are severalreasons why hospitality operations managers focus on themanagement of water consumption and water quality. Theseinclude:- waste water reduces the supply of what is often a scarceresource and adds to the hotel’s costs;- a waste of hot water is also a waste of energy;- poor quality water supplies may pose a health risk to customersand employees;- poor quality water often adds to the running and maintenancecosts of equipment and reduces its life;- contaminated waste water is a hazard to the health of otherstakeholders in the community and increases the load oneffluent plants.Water qualityEvaporated water is pure, but it then becomes contaminatedwith impurities as it passes through the ‘water cycle’, forinstance the nitrate-based chemicals from fertilizers which mayonly emerge from deep underground supplies up to a decadelater. Other contaminants include phosphates and the acidrain that results from absorption of the sulphur dioxide in theatmosphere. Rivers are also used for waste disposal which mayaccidentally rise to danger levels, despite stringent precautions,regulations and ‘lateral thinking’ solutions such as makingcompanies draw their water from downstream. For all thesereasons, water is usually treated before being used for drinkingand cooking. In addition to rivers and lakes (natural andartificial), water supplies come from wells which tap naturalgroundwater that has accumulated through seepage in undergroundstructures called aquifers. In many areas, demand isexceeding natural supply and aquifer water levels are falling.Utility companies provide most hospitality businesses withtheir water supply, though wells bored into aquifers may bethe source in remote areas. Within the UK, cold water suppliesfor drinking and cooking are taken direct from the main supply.For all other purposes, the source will be an intermediatestorage tank within the property, containing either cold or hotwater. Note that the removal of waste water is controlled bylocal regulations. Roof and site drainage water is usually separatedfrom sanitary waste, and kitchen waste is often passedthrough grease filters before entering the waste system.

Most water supplies have been treated by the utility companybefore reaching the hotel, though those using wells willneed on-site treatment. Quality levels are related to intendeduse. Thus lower-quality water may be used in WCs and forgardening purposes, but non-potable and potable suppliesmust be physically isolated to prevent contamination. Thereare three classes of pollutants: chemical, such as lead, aluminium,nitrates and pesticide residues and chemicals causing‘hardness’; bacteriological, as indicated by the presence ofcoliform bacteria and removed by chlorine-based disinfectants;and organoleptic factors (affecting taste, smell or colour).An action plan on water quality should include settingappropriate standards, for both the operation and its location;maintenance and monitoring of the property’s water plant; andassessment of the performance of the plant, especially withregard to potential sources of stagnant water. Issues that mightneed to be addressed could include contamination by airborneparticles, infestation by insects and rodents and the selectionof additional in-house water treatment measures. Commondefects and their treatment include the filtration of suspendedsolids, desalination, water softening, chlorination to removebacterial contamination, and filtration through an active carbonfilter to remove odours and improve taste. Particular careis needed to ensure Legionella pneumophilia cannot survive.Control of water consumptionWater costs account for typically 15–20% of a property’s outgoingsof a hotel’s overall utilities bill. Hot water wastage ismore costly due to associated energy loss. Reducing water lossmust not be at the expense of the comfort of guests, unless theyspecifically agree to certain measures. It has been estimated thatthe average hotel can reduce its water bill by 40%. The mainsavings come from managing flushing systems which accountfor 33% of total water usage, compared to only 3% for drinkingor preparing food. The used water may be treated and reusedin non-contact areas such as toilet cisterns and gardening(International Tourism Partnership 2007). This is called a greywater recycling system and is quite invisible to the customer.Other savings may be made through rainwater harvesting andself-closing taps, and through adapted shower-heads whichreduce water usage while maintaining customer satisfaction.Control of water consumption is accomplished by assessingcurrent performance through conducting a water use auditwhich relates the measure of water consumption to the timeof year and the hotel’s level of business and gives a detailedevaluation of efficiency. The performance is then comparedwith previous figures for the hotel or those of other hospitalitybusinesses.

Comparisons with other hospitality businesses’water consumption, obtained in cubic metres per customerper year by dividing the annual consumption of water by theaverage number of guests per day for the year, can provide abasis for benchmarking. However, in such comparisons, specificfactors affecting consumption, such as indoor laundriesand swimming pools must be taken into account. This wasfound to be the case in a study of water usage in 17 hotels inHong Kong (Deng and Burnett 2002). They measured consumptionby cubic metres per floor area (m3/m2) and foundthat this varied widely from 2.1 m3/m2 up to 7.7 m3/m2. Thiswas largely due to whether or not the hotel had an in-houselaundry, the average for the 10 hotels that did so being muchhigher than those without this facility. They also found thataverage water usage was highest in five star hotels and lowestin three star properties. Specific action that can be takenincludes (International Tourism Partnership 2007):- Change routines, for example reduce wash/rinse cycle inlaundry- Check regularly for leaks from cisterns, taps, pipes andbasins- Fit water-saving devices or sensors in kitchens, bedroomsand public washroomsGreen marketingMarketing has been blamed for contributing to environmentaldamage simply because it produces increased consumption,particularly of raw materials. There has therefore beenan increasing emphasis on the social dimension of marketing,often in response to consumer concerns. There is a sense inwhich customer needs must be viewed holistically over time.Marketing decisions in future will have to take account of ecologicalfactors if sustainable development is to become a reality.Welford (1994: 26) asserts that it is in this functional area(of marketing) that a company’s commitment to sustainabilitywill be judged, particularly by the consumer and wider public.Some companies, such as Scandic Hotels, The Body Shopand Tescos, have been proactive, rather than reactive, and thisis likely to become a trend.Gustin and Weaver’s (1996) study is one of the few toinvestigate consumers’ perspectives. They found that 73% ofrespondents considered themselves environmentally mindedand 71% were positive about staying in ecofriendly properties.Hence marketing may have to be part of a company’s holisticapproach to environmental management. Despite consumerpressure relating to the environment, firms will also have torecognize that consumers’ wants do not always coincide withthe long-term interests of the environment. This challenge canbe met, at least in part, by marketing strategies that educateand inform on environmental issues and benefits.Although some experts stress exclusively the rights andexpectations of shareholders (Reinhardt 1999), businesses willincreasingly have to meet the demands of other stakeholders,such as customers, employees and the local community. For thisreason, it is necessary to make public part at least of the resultsof the EA. However, consumers may not always be supportiveof green initiatives. Manaktola and Jauhari (2007) studied consumersusing hotel services in India and how conscious theywere of environmentally friendly practices. They found consumerswould prefer to use lodging that follows these practicesbut were not willing to pay extra for these services. Despitethis, there is likely to be an upsurge in green branding.

This may be by chains, such as the subtle highlighting of ‘eco’ in the Grecotel chain’s logo (Konopka 1998). Alternatively this maybe through awards given by professional bodies (such as theGreen Globe scheme) or by local tourism organizations (such asthe Scottish Tourist Boards Green Tourism Business Award).Environmental management issues and trendsSuch is the complexity and regional diversity of the global hospitality industry that it is very difficult to identify clear trends(Jones 1999). Indeed the very word ‘trends’ implies a degree ofstability which is rapidly being supplanted by ‘complexity’ or‘chaos’. Nevertheless, the International Tourism Partnership(2007) is clearly shifting ‘environmentalism’ into sustainability.It therefore proposes that operators should work with theirsuppliers to green the supply chain. Part of this is to workmuch more closely with local suppliers to reduce transportemissions (and costs). Linked to this are links with local peopleand communities, so that they too benefit from the hotel development.Finally, operators should ‘maintain a “sense of place”that supports the geographic character of a place – its environment,culture, heritage, aesthetics, and the well-being of its citizens’(International Tourism Partnership 2007).Although some people in the hospitality industry taketheir environmental responsibilities very seriously, others areonly willing to act if there is some compulsion. Legislation isbeing, and will continue to be, used to change the behaviourof businesses. For example, in the UK we have seen legislationon waste disposal, on energy use and on reduction in theuse of packaging materials. These have all affected the hospitalityindustry. Wan Yim King Penny’s (2007) study of hotelsin Macau revealed that low customer demand, poor environmentalknowledge and the lack of governmental regulationsenforcing environmental practices are the reasons hinderinghoteliers in Macau from practicing green polices. But the majorbarrier was that hotel managers do not recognize the importanceof environmental management to hotel effectiveness andcompetitiveness. Consequently, hotels were only interestedin improving areas where there are direct financial gains andwhere there is a fiscal/legislative requirement. A fragmentedapproach to managing their environmental performance hasresulted.This approach is reactive rather than proactive and does notaddress the added value of environmental management. Toooften, managers adopt a ‘cost effective’ consideration of compliance,rather than a ‘cost-benefit’ or ‘value added’ approach.There is no encouragement either to go beyond strict compliance,or to attempt to influence future legislation. The guidelinessuggested by Piasecki et al. (1999) are therefore neitherholistic nor entrepreneurial. The language of compliance usedby Piasecki is that of the manager seeking only to minimizethe costs of this inconvenience without extinguishing a creativeapproach to other aspects of the business. These weaknessesarise from an unimaginative response to regulationwhich is perceived purely in terms of cost. By contrast, theentrepreneur, or enlightened senior manager, actively seekscompetitive advantages from the creative use of imposed legislationand regulation, and attempts to influence other stakeholdersand competitors and to influence future legislationin alignment with the company’s environmental investmentprogramme.

However, many companies are at an early stage ofdevelopment. Initially it is often possible to link environmentalmanagement with financial savings. Plans that result in lowerconsumption of energy or water or reduced costs of waste disposalare relatively easy to sell to the boards of companies.Beyond those changes, others may cost money to implement,with less tangible returns, often based on hard-to-quantifymarketing or public relations benefits. This differentiates thosecompanies that only respond to a business case from those thattake an ethical stance on environmentalism and sustainability.ReferencesBall, S., Jones, P., Kirk, D. and Lockwood, A. (2002) Hospitalityand Operating Systems, Continuum LondonBohdanowicz, P., Siminic, B. and Martinac, I. (2005) Sustainablehotels – environmental reporting according to Green Globe21, Green Globes Canada/GEM UK, IHEI Benchmarkingand Hilton environmental reporting, The 2005 WorldSustainable Building Conference, Tokyo, 27–29 SeptemberBrown, M. (1996) Environmental policy in the hotel sector:“green” strategy or stratagem? International Journal ofContemporary Hospitality Management, 8, 3, 18–23Chan, W. W. (2005) Predicting and saving the consumptionof electricity in sub-tropical hotels, International Journal ofContemporary Hospitality Management, 17, 3, 228–237Chan, W. W. and Lam, J. C. (2002) Prediction of pollutant emissionthrough electricity consumption by the hotel industry inHong Kong, International Journal of Hospitality Management,21, 4, 381–391Chan, E. S. W. and Wong, S. C. K. (2006) Motivations for ISO14001 in the hotel industry, Tourism Management, 27, 481–492Clements-Hunt, P. (1995) Asia on stream, Green Hotelier, 1, 6–7Cummings, L. E. (1992) Hospitality solid waste minimisation: aglobal frame, International Journal of Hospitality Management,11, 3, 255–267Deng, S. M. and Burnett, J. (2000) A study of energy performanceof hotel buildings in Hong Kong, Energy and Buildings,31, 1, 7–12Deng, S.-M. and Burnett, J. (2002) Water use in Hong KongHotels, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21, 1,57–66Green Hotelier (1997a) Scandic opens ‘recyclable’ hotel, GreenHotelier, 8, 6Green Hotelier (1997b) Shangri-La’s path to ISO 14001, GreenHotelier, 8, 30–31Green Hotelier (1998) Members profile – Hilton International,Accor, Bass hotels, Inter-Continental hotels, Starwood hotels,Manarin Oriental hotels, Marriott international, Forte hotels,Marco Polo hotels, Radisson SAS hotels, Scandic hotels, TheIndian Company of hotels, Green Hotelier, 12, 12–25

Gustin, M. E. and Weaver, P. A. (1996) Are hotels prepared forthe environmental consumer? Hospitality Research Journal, 20,2, 1–14International Tourism Partnership (2007) Retrieved on 22October, from http://www.tourismpartnership.org/pages07/Practical_Solutions.htmlIwanowski, K. and Rushmore, C. (1994) Introducing the ecofriendlyhotel, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant AdministrationQuarterly, 35, 1, 34–38James, P. and Bennett, M. (1994) Environmental-RelatedPerformance Measurement in Business: From Emissions to Profitand Sustainability? Ashridge Management Research Group:BerkhamstedJones, P. (1999) Operational issues and trends in the hospitalityindustry, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 18,4, 427–442Jones. P. (2002) The Orchid Hotel, Tourism and HospitalityResearch, 3, 3, 277–280Kirk, D. (1996) Environmental Management for Hotels,Butterworth-Heinemann: OxfordKirk, D. (1998) Attitudes to environmental management heldby a group of hotel managers in Edinburgh, InternationalJournal of Hospitality Management, 17, 1, 33–47Konopka, C. (1998, October 15) The greening of Grecotel,Caterer and Hotelkeeper, 32–33Manaktola, K. and Jauhari, V. (2007) Exploring consumer attitudeand behaviour towards green practices in the lodgingindustry in India, International Journal of ContemporaryHospitality Management, 19, 5, 364–377Piasecki, B. W., Fletcher, K. A. and Mendelson, F. J. (1999)Environmental Management and Business Strategy: LeadershipSkills for the 21st Century, Wiley: New YorkPricewaterhouseCoopers (2001) Hospitality Directions – EuropeEdition, PWC: LondonRada, J. (1996) Designing and building eco-efficient hotels,Green Hotelier, 4, 10–11Reinhardt, F. L. (1999) Bringing the environment down toearth, Harvard Business Review, 77, 4, 149–157Rivera, J. (2004) Institutional pressures and voluntary environmentalbehavior in developing countries: evidence from theCosta Rican hotel industry, Society and Natural Resources, 17,9, 763–857

Hospitality businesses can only optimize their contributionto global sustainability through local and regional co-operation.Welford (1994: 28–29) advocates the development of environmentalnetworks, including multi-sector networks, amongstsmall businesses, voluntary organizations and the public sector.As other companies, through promotion, become aware ofbest practice in this kind of initiative, expanding numbers ofsuch networks will enable controlled and sustainable growthto occur. Rivera’s (2004) study in Costa Rica aimed to identifyhow institutional forces, such as regulatory and stakeholderpressures, are related to proactive environmental behaviour byhotel facilities participating in the Certification for SustainableTourism, a voluntary environmental programme established bythe Costa Rican government. This programme was among thefirst third-party performance-based environmental certificationinitiatives implemented in the developing world. The studysuggested that voluntary environmental programmes thatinclude performance-based standards and third-party monitoringmay be effective in promoting beyond-compliance environmentalbehaviour when they are ‘complemented by isomorphicinstitutional pressures exerted by government environmentalmonitoring and trade association membership’ (Rivera 2004).The International Tourism Partnership is another example ofco-operation within one industry, based on sharing of environmentalinformation and examples of best practice. The WorldCommission on Environment and Development is an exampleof an initiative to introduce inter-sectoral and international cooperation.However, to meet the global environmental challenge,there will need to be a meeting of minds, a consensusworldview on the integration of economics and the environment.A fundamentally new paradigm relating to economicsand development is difficult for many economists and businessexperts to accept. However, the 2007 Stern Report clearlydemonstrated the economic and business impacts of globalwarming and the need for positive action, and it may well leadto a fundamental paradigm shift.Summary and conclusionsEnvironmental management is concerned with all aspectsof the operation, starting with the inputs to the business, thedesign and management of all processes and the output orwaste from the system. Environmental management shouldstart, first with a policy statement and then an audit, to establishcurrent performance. This usually leads to a number ofplanned and measurable changes, designed to improve performance with regard to energy management, materials andwaste, water management and indoor environment.Although hospitality businesses were fairly slow to get intoenvironmental management, a number of high-profile initiativeshave promoted environmental awareness. A number ofcountries and/or regions have also developed environmentalawards or grading schemes as a means of promoting theirinitiatives. In the future, it is likely that we will see more ofthese developments, pressured by inter-governmental agreements.

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