Management Theory and Housekeeping Administration

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We have looked at the roles of employee participation,
management delegation, training, and rewards
in influencing productivity in housekeeping. Each of
these practices evolved from management theories. The
answer, then, to the question of which theory should
be applied in the housekeeping department is, none of
them, and at the same time, all of them. Each of them
is appropriate at different times and under different
circumstances (situational leadership).
Current research also seems to favor the situational
leadership or contingency approach. Studies27 have
indicated that different circumstances demand different
management approaches; an unchanging leadership
style does not work as effectively as a flexible style. The
key variable that influences a manager’s style, according
to the situational leadership theorists, is the ability and
attitude of the follower.
Although a manager’s behavior may change, or an
approach to a problem may be dictated by the ability
and attitude of the follower, we believe that a manager
should always maintain a high level of concern for both
We have looked at the roles of employee participation,
management delegation, training, and rewards
in influencing productivity in housekeeping. Each of
these practices evolved from management theories. The
answer, then, to the question of which theory should
be applied in the housekeeping department is, none of
them, and at the same time, all of them. Each of them
is appropriate at different times and under different
circumstances (situational leadership).
Current research also seems to favor the situational
leadership or contingency approach. Studies27 have
indicated that different circumstances demand different
management approaches; an unchanging leadership
style does not work as effectively as a flexible style. The
key variable that influences a manager’s style, according
to the situational leadership theorists, is the ability and
attitude of the follower.
Although a manager’s behavior may change, or an
approach to a problem may be dictated by the ability
and attitude of the follower, we believe that a manager
should always maintain a high level of concern for both
New Horizons in Management

Recent attempts to gain better guest acceptance of the
service product being presented have yielded reports that
the root problem noted by guests usually centered on
the employee failing to perform adequately. Employee
attitudes and motivations were also highly suspect; this
was noticed when guests were asked to rank their most
common complaints when visiting a hotel. Appearing
at the top of most lists were the guests’ concerns about
employee attitudes. More detailed studies, however, have
indicated that a clear 85 percent of all guest and service
quality problems were the result of systems, policies, and
procedures that were either outdated, inappropriate,
or restrictive, and consequently did not take care
of the guest. Only 15 percent of quality problems
were associated directly with the employee’s failure to
perform properly in the employee’s relationship with
the guest. Basically, in our industry, employees have
been overmanaged and underled.
Other studies addressed the issue of quality assurance
in hotel operations. Such was the case of the American
Hotel and Motel Association’s sponsored study
conducted at the Sheraton Scottsdale in Scottsdale,
Arizona.28 This study was primarily concerned with problem
solving in areas where guest comments indicated a
quality problem in rendering service to the guest.
Theory Z technique was applied at the Sheraton
Scottsdale, and several focus groups (created from
among several first-line employees who would be most
conversant with the particular problem being discussed)
were formed to address the problem areas identified
by guest comments. (The terms focus group and quality
circle are interchangeable.) The focus group concept,
once and for all, took recognition of the fact that it
was the front-line employee who was actually delivering
the product or service being offered—not the company,
the general manager, or the middle management of the
property, or even the first-line supervisor. It is the
front-line employee who, having the greatest contact with
the guest, actually represents the entire organization to
the guest. Too often in the past, when talking to the
guest, the only response available to the employee was,
‘‘You will have to talk to the manager.’’
By placing the guest’s problem in front of those
employees (focus group) who had the greatest knowledge
about how to solve a problem (because they did
the work in the area of the problem), quality standards
would be raised. Having been involved in creating the
new and better-quality standard, the employees would
be more inclined to personally commit themselves to
meeting the new standards. These new standards then
became the benchmarks for training or retraining of all
employees: standards set by employees and agreed to by
management.
The results of the changes developed through this
sponsored study, as reported by Sheraton Scottsdale
General Manager Ken MacKenzie, included ‘‘growth in
revenue of twenty-eight percent in the first year of the
program, twenty-five percent in the second year, and a
group of supportive employees. You don’t buy them or
hire them, you develop them.’’29

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EMPLOYEES RENAMED AND EMPOWEREDFurther recognition of the results obtained with TheoryZ and focus groups has resulted inmany hotel companiesnow referring to their employees as associates.In addition, associates are being empowered to dowhatever is necessary to resolve problems for the guest,rather than to refer problems to management.Empowerment is actually a form of ultimate delegationthat allows the person who is delivering the productand is most closely in touch with the problem to do(within certain boundaries) whatever is necessary to‘‘make it right’’ for the guest.Empowerment as a program does not mean theemployee simply takes power, but rather is granted powerby the supervisor after being properly trained to meetwritten standards that have been prepared by the associatesand have been accepted by management. Shouldan employee make a mistake through empowerment, heor she may be counseled or retrained.These quality and empowerment concepts are nowbeing developed by several hotel organizations intowhat is becoming known as Total Quality Management(TQM). According to Stephen Weisz, former RegionalVice President, Middle Atlantic Region, Marriott Hotels,‘‘TQM encompasses having an understanding of customerrequirements, and modifying product and servicedelivery to meet these requirements, customers beingboth external and internal to the company.’’EXECUTIVE PROFILEBryan Cornelius A Future CEO on the Goby Andi M. Vance, Editor, Executive Housekeeping TodayThis article first appeared in the March 2003 issue of Executive Housekeeping Today,the official publication of the International Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc.Depictions of young adults thesedays are filled with tales of apathy,hours on the PlayStation, laziness,misbehavior and overindulgence.For those young peoplewho strive for something betterfor themselves, they follow thewell-worn path from high schoolto college, which leads them toa career in something that oftentimespertains little to what theystudied in school.It’s a pretty safe bet to saythat at age 22, Bryan Lee Corneliusis the youngest memberof I.E.H.A.; however, he’s reallynot your typical young adult. Atthe moment, he has no time forvideo games or college courses.Working ten hours a day, six daysa week as the Executive Housekeeperat the Radisson Hotelin the Historic District of Savannah,Georgia, he is preventedfrom doing much even in termsof socializing with his friends. Hespends his time managing thehousekeeping department as wellas cross-training in other departments.In fact, sleeping comprisesmuch of his free time. By goingagainst the grain, diligently workingand learning everything withinhis reach, Bryan Cornelius continuesto gain prominence in thehotel industry. He confesses thathe’s found his niche.Many jobs in the service industrydon’t come without their fairshare of challenges. Cornelius’persistence and dedication tohis position has yielded manyrewards throughout his shortcareer. At the age of 18, hewas completely green to hotels.Looking to earn some spendingmoney during high school,he worked as a shipping andreceiving clerk at a local Marriotthotel. Fueled by an intensedesire mixed and driven by foresight,Bryan anxiously pursued thecountless opportunities availableto him in the hotel business.Unlike many of his youngerpeers, Bryan wholeheartedly dedicateshimself to his job. His job ishis life. Watching the constructionof the 403-room Westin SavannahHarbor Resort across the river,Bryan anxiously submitted hisapplication for employment alongwith half of the town of Savannah.An article in the local paper hadrevealed that over 20,000 peoplehad applied at the hotel, sohe was quite shocked to find hewas one of only 300 who wereselected.With experience in shippingand receiving, he gained employmentin this department, only tofind they had overstaffed it. Corneliusvolunteered himself to betransferred elsewhere, landinghimself a supervisory position inHousekeeping at age 19. ‘‘Afterspeaking with one of my friendsand the Executive Housekeeper,I accepted the position,’’ he anxiouslyrecalls. ‘‘That was probablyone of the best decisions I’vemade in my life. It was a daredevilopportunity. From then on, I knewHousekeeping was for me.’’Equipped with little knowledge,but armed with a fiercework ethic, Cornelius set to facethe many battles lying beforehim. Breaking down stereotypesand misjudgments regarding hisyoung age presented his biggestdilemma. ‘‘It’s very tough whenyou are trying to work with roomattendants and show them theproper way of doing something,and they just look at you and say,‘I have grandchildren as youngas you. You’re not going to showme anything about this job I don’talready know.’’’

GAINING RESPECTNot only did Cornelius’ work onthe field gain recognition, buthis diligence off the clock alsobrought attention. Little was Corneliusaware that his dedicationon the hotel’s softball team wouldhelp him later get a new job inMiami, Florida. At the time, theGeneral Manager at the Westinwas preparing to leave when hesat down with eight employees tomake them aware of the opportunitiesavailable to them as hetook over properties in Miami.Cornelius was a part of the group.‘‘He said one particular thingto me,’’ Bryan remembers. ‘‘Hesaid that even though we’d hardlyworked together, he had watchedme play softball. My dedicationhad shined through whenever I’dhit the ball. Even though I knewit was an easy catch, I ran rightthrough first base.’’Soon after, Cornelius accepteda supervisory position in Housekeepingat the Mandarin OrientalHotel in Miami. ‘‘This hotel isjust awesome,’’ he relates witha sound of awe in his voice. ‘‘It’sa 5-star hotel where rooms startat $600. If you want a suite, thatruns you at $8,000 a night. It wasa whole new ball game.’’As if moving from Savannah toSouth Beach wasn’t enough cultureshock thrown at Cornelius,the carpets of the hotel were routinelystudded with famous actorsand movie stars who requiredparticular attention. ‘‘I met PuffDaddy, and Michael Jacksonstayed there for a month,’’ hecasually mentions. ‘‘It was fun;every day, you’d go up to thecomputer and print out the sheetof arrivals. When you saw ScoobyDoo or Superman, you knew itwas a celebrity. It was definitelyexciting.’’When a family situation beckonedhis presence, Corneliusreturned to Savannah eightmonths later. At the time, hisidentical twin brother, Ryan LeeCornelius, continued to lookfor employment where he’d behappy. Seeing his brother’s successin the hotel business, hesought employment in Bryan’sformer position at the Westin.Bryan’s hard-working reputation atthe hotel proceeded his brother,and Ryan was hired even withoutan interview. Ryan’s hard work hasalso helped put him through theranks as well.Since his return home in February2002, Bryan has enjoyedthe amount of responsibilityplaced upon his shoulders in theHousekeeping Department at theRadisson Hotel Historic in downtownSavannah. Hired initially asthe Assistant Executive Housekeeper,he gained a promotion toExecutive Housekeeper at the ageof 21.He remembers the day like itwas yesterday. ‘‘Everyone wasstanding around and congratulatingme when realization hit: Iwas now responsible for runningthe entire department. This wasnow my whole department.The GM sat me down andacknowledged that while theycould have hired anyone for theposition, I was the first personwho came to their minds. Hewanted to enhance operationsin the department and wouldn’thave offered me the position if hedidn’t think I could do it.’’STAFFTurning the department aroundinvolved reducing turnover andkeeping operations under budget.Cornelius admits that keepingpeople working can sometimesbe difficult in Savannah, due tothe poor economic conditions,but he found a way to establishloyalty. ‘‘If someone from upNorth were to try to come andhandle some of these situations,’’he advises, ‘‘he might not be soeffective. I grew up around thistype of environment, so I knowhow to get them to work. Youwant to speak with them and stayon their level, never acting likeyou’re better than them. Theyare Southern people and they dothings a certain way, and they’llcontinue doing things that way.In Miami, I found the workers tobe completely different. The workethic between the two cities justvaried greatly. In Savannah, theycome to work because we make ita pleasant environment.’’Bryan’s interaction with his staffbegins with their point of hire.During the interview, he detailsthe Three Zero-Tolerance Rules,which are cause for termination:1) If you pop sheets (don’t changethem), you’re gone; 2) If you nocall, no show, you’re gone; 3) Ifyou leave a room at the end ofthe day without cleaning it, you’regone. In his experience, over 95%of the housekeepers who are dischargedleave for one of thesethree reasons.After welcoming a newemployee to his staff, Bryanmakes an effort to spend timewith an employee to better knowhim or her. ‘‘I get to know themon a personal level,’’ he relates. ‘‘Iwant to know their favorite foods,interests, movies, and about theirfamilies. This shows them that younot only care about an employeeas a worker, but a person aswell. It pays off in the long run,because when you really needsomeone to come into work, theywill respond to you a lot better.’’

BRYAN CORNELIUS ONSOUTHERN HOSPITALITYSavannah, the oldest city in Georgia,is a Mecca for SouthernHospitality. When asked whatcomprises the essence of SouthernHospitality, Bryan summedit up with three things: cuisine,de´ cor and attitude.‘‘[All the people at the hotel]have lived here for all their lives,so we exemplify Southern Hospitalityto the core. Visitors cometo Savannah and continually askwhy everyone’s so nice. That’s justus,’’ he admits. ‘‘We get tons ofcomment cards from people whoare so impressed with the extraefforts our staff makes, but to us,we’re not doing anything special.It’s the way we were raised.’’When guests are in need ofcertain items, Bryan rifles throughhis resources to see if he canfind exactly what they need, oran item they can use to improvise.For example, the single mostoften left item in a room is a cellphone charger. He has a hugearray of various chargers for everymake and model of cell phone.When a guest calls Housekeepingon a whim, in dire need of acharger, Bryan asks which modelis needed and sends one to theroom immediately.‘‘Guests are always blownaway by that,’’ he says. ‘‘All I dois accumulate them, so if someoneneeds one, we can providethem. I’ve got tons; like 20 of thesame type. Lost and found can bea really good thing.’’He routinely advises his staffnot to throw away the things forwhich they don’t foresee a guestreturning. Paperwork is a greatexample, says Cornelius. ‘‘I’veprobably had more paperworksent out to guests than jewelry.This is a great area to showexemplary service. If I can find anumber or a way to reach guestswhen they’ve left something, thenI’ll try to call them and let themknow. Sometimes, it’s even beforethey’ve realized that the article ismissing. That’s when they’re reallyimpressed!’’ST. PATRICK’S DAYOn St. Patrick’s Day, pandemoniumerupts on the streets ofSavannah, and Bryan Cornelius’hotel is at the heart of it. Savannahis home to one of the largestSt. Patrick’s Day celebrations inthe world, which presents countlessissues for facilities housingthe partygoers. ‘‘It’s the oneevent none of us enjoy,’’ Bryanadmits. ‘‘I used to look forward toit because I used to be out in thecrowd. Now I’m in the hotel andit’s mayhem. The two or threedays they’re here are the worstthe hotel rooms look all year. Ittakes a lot of work to get cleanedup after that.’’At the time of his interview,Bryan had been working for atleast five months with other hotelpersonnel, party coordinators andvendors to assure the smoothestcelebration possible. Securityefforts are heightened during thistime to assure the least amount ofdamage to property and injury tothe participants possible.‘‘It’s the most I work all year,’’says Bryan. ‘‘Last year, I workeda total of 23 hours in one day. Iwent from my normal duties toManager on Duty to security. Weall have to pitch in a hand to getthrough it.’’AWARDSBryan Cornelius’ early managerialsuccess is the result of a perfectrecipe of dedication, hardwork, ambition and a willingnessto learn everything he canfrom everyone around him. Muchrecognition has already beenbestowed upon him as a result.In fact, the week prior to his interview,the Radisson awarded Bryanthe Manager of the Year Awardfor 2002.‘‘I was so surprised,’’ headmits. ‘‘Everyone had been sayingthat I would get it, but untilmy name came out of my GM,Whip Triplett’s, mouth that night,I didn’t believe it. It was amazing.One of the first things I didwas call my mother. She was sohappy for me; I work so hard tomake my mother proud.’’Bryan has also received theBill Tiefel Award of Excellence.Distributed by the Marriott, thisaward is given to employeeswho show such exemplary servicethat a guest writes a letter toBill Tiefel and expresses appreciationfor the service. Bryan hasno recollection of the guest whowas impressed by his service, butwas extremely honored by theaward. He has also been honoredas Employee of the Month.Regardless of the facility orstate where he works and theadministration or staff with whomhe works, Bryan Cornelius maintainsfive-star standards. He goesto every effort to ensure the bestpossible experience for everyone,while aiming to become a mogulin the hospitality industry. ‘‘I tellmy friends who want me to goout and party that I’m a futureCEO on the go. I spend a majorityof my time working to advancemy career.’’Mentors have given him guidancealong the way, steering himaway from trouble and towardsuccess. Mark Stratton, one ofBryan’s current managers, seesBryan’s potential and assists inopening doors for him. Bryanreally appreciates the recognitionof his current G.M., Whip Triplett,as he’s provided Bryan with greatopportunities. ‘‘He’s the one whodisregarded my age as a consideration,’’he relates. ‘‘He had faithin me, and I have done an excellentjob for him in return.’’

CONCLUSIONBryan Cornelius’ mom has alwaysdesired her son to go to college.While much of his drive andambition is fueled by a desireto please his mother, Bryan hasyet to step into a college classroom,although he advises that hewill go at some point. Recognizingthe plethora of opportunitiesavailable in hospitality, he’s pursuedhis career with a zest thatgoes unparalleled. His commitmentis to be admired andrespected. Upon calling hismother regarding his award lastweek, she asked him if he realizedwhat he had accomplishedat such an early age. ‘‘I do realize,’’he says, ‘‘but I don’t wantto dwell on it too much. I’m constantlymoving and I don’t want toget a big head. I want to sharpenmy skills and do a lot more in thefuture, so I don’t have too muchtime to thinks about the present.’’Bryan’s advice to other youngaspiring executive housekeepersand professionals1. Set one goal at a time. If youset too many, you’ll get discouraged.So set one andfollow it through.2. Always ask questions.3. Listen. It’s the most effectiveway to gain intelligence.4. Keep your eyes open toopportunities.5. Work hard.6. Defy adversity and negativity.7. Never set yourself aboveyour coworkers.8. Remember that age isonly a number.9. Always ask for additionalresponsibilities, when youcan handle it.DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Bryan Cornelius has not pursueda college degree. Heseems to have succeededwithout it, but has he? Whatarguments could you make toBryan for going to college?2. Bryan is very focused for hisage. Can a person be tooambitious? Do you see anypossible pitfalls to this singlemindedness?CONCLUSIONIn this article we briefly traced the origins of hospitalityand housekeeping, as well as the developmentof management theory and its application to the housekeepingfunction.Our exploration of housekeeping and managementtheory has by no means been exhaustive. It is impossibleto discuss all of the contributors and their contributionsto management here, but we will be referring to some ofthe major contributors throughout this text, particularlythe sequential functions of management as revised andexpanded by R. Alec Mackenzie. Keep these principlesin mind and refer to them as you read this text. Also,compare these ideas with those of Tom Atchison.KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTSHospitalityLine organizationSpan of controlDelegationClassical schoolAdministrative theoryScientific managementScientific methodManagement scienceOperations researchHuman relationsBehavioral schoolTheory XTheory YSatisfiersDissatisfiersParticipative managementTheory ZManagerial gridQuality circleSituational leadershipContingency approachElementsIdeasThingsPeopleFunctionsContinuous functionsConceptual thinkingAdministrationLeadershipSequential functionsManagement planOrganizedStaffingDirectingControlMotivationProductiveTurnoverAbsenteeismInsubordinationExit interviewsDelegationStandard operating procedures(SOPs)Degrees of delegationTangiblesIntangiblesInputsOutputsInspired followersAutocratic changePassive aggressive behaviorLeadership styleAssociatesEmpowered

GAINING RESPECTNot only did Cornelius’ work onthe field gain recognition, buthis diligence off the clock alsobrought attention. Little was Corneliusaware that his dedicationon the hotel’s softball team wouldhelp him later get a new job inMiami, Florida. At the time, theGeneral Manager at the Westinwas preparing to leave when hesat down with eight employees tomake them aware of the opportunitiesavailable to them as hetook over properties in Miami.Cornelius was a part of the group.‘‘He said one particular thingto me,’’ Bryan remembers. ‘‘Hesaid that even though we’d hardlyworked together, he had watchedme play softball. My dedicationhad shined through whenever I’dhit the ball. Even though I knewit was an easy catch, I ran rightthrough first base.’’Soon after, Cornelius accepteda supervisory position in Housekeepingat the Mandarin OrientalHotel in Miami. ‘‘This hotel isjust awesome,’’ he relates witha sound of awe in his voice. ‘‘It’sa 5-star hotel where rooms startat $600. If you want a suite, thatruns you at $8,000 a night. It wasa whole new ball game.’’As if moving from Savannah toSouth Beach wasn’t enough cultureshock thrown at Cornelius,the carpets of the hotel were routinelystudded with famous actorsand movie stars who requiredparticular attention. ‘‘I met PuffDaddy, and Michael Jacksonstayed there for a month,’’ hecasually mentions. ‘‘It was fun;every day, you’d go up to thecomputer and print out the sheetof arrivals. When you saw ScoobyDoo or Superman, you knew itwas a celebrity. It was definitelyexciting.’’When a family situation beckonedhis presence, Corneliusreturned to Savannah eightmonths later. At the time, hisidentical twin brother, Ryan LeeCornelius, continued to lookfor employment where he’d behappy. Seeing his brother’s successin the hotel business, hesought employment in Bryan’sformer position at the Westin.Bryan’s hard-working reputation atthe hotel proceeded his brother,and Ryan was hired even withoutan interview. Ryan’s hard work hasalso helped put him through theranks as well.Since his return home in February2002, Bryan has enjoyedthe amount of responsibilityplaced upon his shoulders in theHousekeeping Department at theRadisson Hotel Historic in downtownSavannah. Hired initially asthe Assistant Executive Housekeeper,he gained a promotion toExecutive Housekeeper at the ageof 21.He remembers the day like itwas yesterday. ‘‘Everyone wasstanding around and congratulatingme when realization hit: Iwas now responsible for runningthe entire department. This wasnow my whole department.The GM sat me down andacknowledged that while theycould have hired anyone for theposition, I was the first personwho came to their minds. Hewanted to enhance operationsin the department and wouldn’thave offered me the position if hedidn’t think I could do it.’’STAFFTurning the department aroundinvolved reducing turnover andkeeping operations under budget.Cornelius admits that keepingpeople working can sometimesbe difficult in Savannah, due tothe poor economic conditions,but he found a way to establishloyalty. ‘‘If someone from upNorth were to try to come andhandle some of these situations,’’he advises, ‘‘he might not be soeffective. I grew up around thistype of environment, so I knowhow to get them to work. Youwant to speak with them and stayon their level, never acting likeyou’re better than them. Theyare Southern people and they dothings a certain way, and they’llcontinue doing things that way.In Miami, I found the workers tobe completely different. The workethic between the two cities justvaried greatly. In Savannah, theycome to work because we make ita pleasant environment.’’Bryan’s interaction with his staffbegins with their point of hire.During the interview, he detailsthe Three Zero-Tolerance Rules,which are cause for termination:1) If you pop sheets (don’t changethem), you’re gone; 2) If you nocall, no show, you’re gone; 3) Ifyou leave a room at the end ofthe day without cleaning it, you’regone. In his experience, over 95%of the housekeepers who are dischargedleave for one of thesethree reasons.After welcoming a newemployee to his staff, Bryanmakes an effort to spend timewith an employee to better knowhim or her. ‘‘I get to know themon a personal level,’’ he relates. ‘‘Iwant to know their favorite foods,interests, movies, and about theirfamilies. This shows them that younot only care about an employeeas a worker, but a person aswell. It pays off in the long run,because when you really needsomeone to come into work, theywill respond to you a lot better.’’

EMPLOYEES RENAMED AND EMPOWEREDFurther recognition of the results obtained with TheoryZ and focus groups has resulted inmany hotel companiesnow referring to their employees as associates.In addition, associates are being empowered to dowhatever is necessary to resolve problems for the guest,rather than to refer problems to management.Empowerment is actually a form of ultimate delegationthat allows the person who is delivering the productand is most closely in touch with the problem to do(within certain boundaries) whatever is necessary to‘‘make it right’’ for the guest.Empowerment as a program does not mean theemployee simply takes power, but rather is granted powerby the supervisor after being properly trained to meetwritten standards that have been prepared by the associatesand have been accepted by management. Shouldan employee make a mistake through empowerment, heor she may be counseled or retrained.These quality and empowerment concepts are nowbeing developed by several hotel organizations intowhat is becoming known as Total Quality Management(TQM). According to Stephen Weisz, former RegionalVice President, Middle Atlantic Region, Marriott Hotels,‘‘TQM encompasses having an understanding of customerrequirements, and modifying product and servicedelivery to meet these requirements, customers beingboth external and internal to the company.’’EXECUTIVE PROFILEBryan Cornelius A Future CEO on the Goby Andi M. Vance, Editor, Executive Housekeeping TodayThis article first appeared in the March 2003 issue of Executive Housekeeping Today,the official publication of the International Executive Housekeepers Association, Inc.Depictions of young adults thesedays are filled with tales of apathy,hours on the PlayStation, laziness,misbehavior and overindulgence.For those young peoplewho strive for something betterfor themselves, they follow thewell-worn path from high schoolto college, which leads them toa career in something that oftentimespertains little to what theystudied in school.It’s a pretty safe bet to saythat at age 22, Bryan Lee Corneliusis the youngest memberof I.E.H.A.; however, he’s reallynot your typical young adult. Atthe moment, he has no time forvideo games or college courses.Working ten hours a day, six daysa week as the Executive Housekeeperat the Radisson Hotelin the Historic District of Savannah,Georgia, he is preventedfrom doing much even in termsof socializing with his friends. Hespends his time managing thehousekeeping department as wellas cross-training in other departments.In fact, sleeping comprisesmuch of his free time. By goingagainst the grain, diligently workingand learning everything withinhis reach, Bryan Cornelius continuesto gain prominence in thehotel industry. He confesses thathe’s found his niche.Many jobs in the service industrydon’t come without their fairshare of challenges. Cornelius’persistence and dedication tohis position has yielded manyrewards throughout his shortcareer. At the age of 18, hewas completely green to hotels.Looking to earn some spendingmoney during high school,he worked as a shipping andreceiving clerk at a local Marriotthotel. Fueled by an intensedesire mixed and driven by foresight,Bryan anxiously pursued thecountless opportunities availableto him in the hotel business.Unlike many of his youngerpeers, Bryan wholeheartedly dedicateshimself to his job. His job ishis life. Watching the constructionof the 403-room Westin SavannahHarbor Resort across the river,Bryan anxiously submitted hisapplication for employment alongwith half of the town of Savannah.An article in the local paper hadrevealed that over 20,000 peoplehad applied at the hotel, sohe was quite shocked to find hewas one of only 300 who wereselected.With experience in shippingand receiving, he gained employmentin this department, only tofind they had overstaffed it. Corneliusvolunteered himself to betransferred elsewhere, landinghimself a supervisory position inHousekeeping at age 19. ‘‘Afterspeaking with one of my friendsand the Executive Housekeeper,I accepted the position,’’ he anxiouslyrecalls. ‘‘That was probablyone of the best decisions I’vemade in my life. It was a daredevilopportunity. From then on, I knewHousekeeping was for me.’’Equipped with little knowledge,but armed with a fiercework ethic, Cornelius set to facethe many battles lying beforehim. Breaking down stereotypesand misjudgments regarding hisyoung age presented his biggestdilemma. ‘‘It’s very tough whenyou are trying to work with roomattendants and show them theproper way of doing something,and they just look at you and say,‘I have grandchildren as youngas you. You’re not going to showme anything about this job I don’talready know.’’’

CONCLUSIONBryan Cornelius’ mom has alwaysdesired her son to go to college.While much of his drive andambition is fueled by a desireto please his mother, Bryan hasyet to step into a college classroom,although he advises that hewill go at some point. Recognizingthe plethora of opportunitiesavailable in hospitality, he’s pursuedhis career with a zest thatgoes unparalleled. His commitmentis to be admired andrespected. Upon calling hismother regarding his award lastweek, she asked him if he realizedwhat he had accomplishedat such an early age. ‘‘I do realize,’’he says, ‘‘but I don’t wantto dwell on it too much. I’m constantlymoving and I don’t want toget a big head. I want to sharpenmy skills and do a lot more in thefuture, so I don’t have too muchtime to thinks about the present.’’Bryan’s advice to other youngaspiring executive housekeepersand professionals1. Set one goal at a time. If youset too many, you’ll get discouraged.So set one andfollow it through.2. Always ask questions.3. Listen. It’s the most effectiveway to gain intelligence.4. Keep your eyes open toopportunities.5. Work hard.6. Defy adversity and negativity.7. Never set yourself aboveyour coworkers.8. Remember that age isonly a number.9. Always ask for additionalresponsibilities, when youcan handle it.DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1. Bryan Cornelius has not pursueda college degree. Heseems to have succeededwithout it, but has he? Whatarguments could you make toBryan for going to college?2. Bryan is very focused for hisage. Can a person be tooambitious? Do you see anypossible pitfalls to this singlemindedness?CONCLUSIONIn this article we briefly traced the origins of hospitalityand housekeeping, as well as the developmentof management theory and its application to the housekeepingfunction.Our exploration of housekeeping and managementtheory has by no means been exhaustive. It is impossibleto discuss all of the contributors and their contributionsto management here, but we will be referring to some ofthe major contributors throughout this text, particularlythe sequential functions of management as revised andexpanded by R. Alec Mackenzie. Keep these principlesin mind and refer to them as you read this text. Also,compare these ideas with those of Tom Atchison.KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTSHospitalityLine organizationSpan of controlDelegationClassical schoolAdministrative theoryScientific managementScientific methodManagement scienceOperations researchHuman relationsBehavioral schoolTheory XTheory YSatisfiersDissatisfiersParticipative managementTheory ZManagerial gridQuality circleSituational leadershipContingency approachElementsIdeasThingsPeopleFunctionsContinuous functionsConceptual thinkingAdministrationLeadershipSequential functionsManagement planOrganizedStaffingDirectingControlMotivationProductiveTurnoverAbsenteeismInsubordinationExit interviewsDelegationStandard operating procedures(SOPs)Degrees of delegationTangiblesIntangiblesInputsOutputsInspired followersAutocratic changePassive aggressive behaviorLeadership styleAssociatesEmpowered

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