Origins of Hospitality and Housekeeping

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Hospitality is the cordial and generous reception and
entertainment of guests or strangers, either socially or
commercially. From this definition we get the feeling
of the open house and the host with open arms, of a
place in which people can be cared for. Regardless of
the reasons people go to a home away from home, they
will need care. They will need a clean and comfortable
place to rest or sleep, food service, an area for socializing
and meeting other people, access to stores and shops,
and secure surroundings.
Americans have often been described as a people on
themove, amobile society; and since their earliest history
Americans have required bed and board. Travelers
in the early 1700s found a hospitality similar to
that in their countries of origin, even though these
new accommodations may have been in roadhouses,
missions, or private homes and the housekeeping may
have included only a bed of straw that was changed
weekly.
Facilities in all parts of young America were commensurate
with the demand of the traveling public, and early
records indicate that a choice was usually available at
many trading centers and crossroads. The decision as
to where to stay was as it is today, based on where you
might find a location providing the best food, overnight
protection, and clean facilities. Even though the inns
were crude, they were gathering places where you could
learn the news of the day, socialize, find out the business
of the community, and rest.
With the growth of transportation—roadways, river
travel, railroads, and air travel—Americans became even
more mobile. Inns, hotels, motor hotels, resorts, and the
like have kept pace, fallen by the wayside, been overbuilt,
or been refurbished to meet quality demands.
Just as the traveler of earlier times had a choice,
there is a wide choice for travelers today. We therefore
have to consider seriously why one specific hotel or inn
might be selected over another. In each of the areas we
mentioned—food, clean room, sociable atmosphere,
meeting space, and security—there has been a need
to remain competitive. Priorities in regard to these
need areas, however, have remained in the sphere of
an individual property’s management philosophy.
CREATING PROPER ATTITUDES
In addition to the areas of hospitality we discussed,
professional housekeeping requires a staff with a sense of
pride. Housekeeping staffsmust show concern for guests,
which will make the guests want to return—the basic
ingredient for growth in occupancy and success in the
hotel business. Such pride is bestmeasured by the degree
to which the individual maids (guestroom attendants
or section housekeepers) say to guests through their
attitude, concern, and demeanor, ‘‘Welcome. We are
glad you chose to stay with us. We care about you and
want your visit to be a memorable occasion. If anything
is not quite right, please let us know in order that we
might take care of the problem immediately.’’
A prime responsibility of the executive housekeeper is
to develop this concern in the staff; it is just as important
as the other functions of cleaning bathrooms, making
beds, and making rooms ready for occupancy. Throughout
this text, we present techniques for developing such
attitudes in housekeeping staffs.
Origins of Management

While the evolution of the housekeeping profession
was taking place, professional management was also
being developed. In fact, there is evidence that over
6000 years ago in Egypt and Greece, complex social
groups required management and administration. It
is even possible to derive evidence of the study and
formulation of the management process as early as the
time of Moses. Henry Sisk1 reminds us that in the
Bible (Exod. 18:13–26) Jethro, Moses’s father-in-law,
observed Moses spending too much time listening to the
complaints of his people. Jethro therefore organized a
plan to handle these problems that would in turn relieve
Moses of the tedium of this type of administration. A
system of delegation to lieutenants thus emerged. We
can therefore assign some of the credit to Jethro for
establishing several of the principles of management that
we recognize today: the principles of line organization,
span of control, and delegation.
SCHOOLS OF MANAGEMENT THEORY
Although it is beyond the scope of this article to provide
an exhaustive examination and comparative analysis
of all of the approaches to management theory that
have appeared over the past 2000 years, the following
discussion is an attempt to identify the major schools of
management theory and to relate these theories to the
modern housekeeping operation.
The Classical School
The classical school of management theory can be
divided into two distinct concerns: administrative theory
and scientific management. Administrative theory is
principally concerned with management of the total
organization, whereas scientific management is concerned
with the individual worker and the improvement
of production efficiency by means of an analysis of work
using the scientific method. These two branches of the
classical school should be viewed as being complementary
rather than competitive.

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Administrative TheoryConsidered by many to be the father of administrativetheory,Henri Fayol2 (1841–1925) was a French engineerwho became the managing director of a miningcompany. Fayol sought to apply scientific principles tothe management of the entire organization. His mostfamous work, Administratim Industrielle et General (Generaland Industrial Management), first published in 1916 andlater in English in 1929, is considered by many to be aclassic in management theory.Fayol asserted that the process of management wascharacterized by the following five functions:1. Planning—the specification of goals and themeans to accomplish those goals by the company2. Organizing—the way in which organizational structureis established and how authority and responsibilityare given to managers, a task known as delegation3. Commanding—how managers direct their employees4. Coordinating—activities designed to create arelationship among all of the organization’sefforts to accomplish a common goal5. Controlling—how managers evaluate performancewithin the organization in relationship to theplans and goals of that organization3Fayol is also famous for his Fourteen Principles ofManagement and his belief that administrative skillscould be taught in a classroom setting.Scientific ManagementFayol’s counterpart in the management of work wasFrederick W. Taylor4 (1856–1915), the father of scientificmanagement. Taylor was an intense (some wouldsay obsessive) individual who was committed to applyingthe scientific method to the work setting. In 1912, Taylorgave his own definition of scientific management toa committee in the U.S. House of Representatives, bystating what scientific management was not:Scientific Management is not any efficiency device, nor adevice of any kind for securing efficiency; nor is it anybranch or group of efficiency devices. It is not a new systemof figuring cost; it is not a new scheme of paying men; it isnot a piecework system; it is not a bonus system, nor is itholding a stop watch on a man and writing down thingsabout him. It is not time study, it is not motion study noran analysis of the movements of men.Although Taylor’s definition of scientific managementcontinued at length in a similar vein, he did notargue against using the aforementioned tools. His pointwas that scientific management was truly a mental revolution,whereby the scientific method was the sole basis forobtaining information from which to derive facts, formconclusions, make recommendations, and take action.Taylor’s contribution was a basis for understanding howto administer a project and the people involved.In his Principles of Scientific Management, publishedin 1911, he outlined four principles that constitutescientific management:1. Develop a science for each element of a man’swork, which replaces the old rule-of-thumbmethod.2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, anddevelop the workman, whereas in the past he chosehis own work and trained himself as best he could.3. Heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensureall of the work being done is in accordancewith the principles of the science which hasbeen developed.4. There is an almost equal division of the work andthe responsibilities between the managementand the workmen, while in the past almost allof the work and the greater part of the responsibilitywere thrown upon the men.Taylor also pointed out that the mental revolutionhad to take place in the workers’ as well as the managers’minds.The School of Management ScienceAn outgrowth of ‘‘Taylorism’’ is the school of managementscience, or, as it is alternatively known, operationsresearch. Management science is defined as the applicationof the scientific method to the analysis and solutionof managerial decision problems. The application ofmathematical models to executive decision making grewout of the joint U.S. and British efforts during WorldWar II to use such models in military decision making atboth the strategic and the tactical levels.

The Behavioral SchoolA predecessor to the human relations school of managementwas the nineteenth-century Scottish textilemill operator Robert Owen.6 He believed that workersneeded to be ‘‘kept in a good state of repair.’’Owen urged other manufacturers to adopt his concernover improving the human resources they employed.He claimed that returns from investment in humanresources would far exceed a similar investment inmachinery and equipment.Unfortunately, it was not until the second decadeof the twentieth century that the results of Elton Mayo’sHawthorne Studies affirmedOwen’s position and caughtthe imagination of American management.Mayo7 (1880–1949) was a faculty member of theHarvard University School of Business Administrationwhen he began to study workers at the HawthorneWorksof the Western Electric Company in Chicago in 1927.From this study, Mayo and his colleagues concluded thatthere were factors other than the physical aspect of workthat had an effect on productivity. These factors includedthe social and psychological aspects of workers and theirrelationships with managers and other workers.Mayo’s work effectively demonstrated to managersthat in order for them to increase productivity in thework setting, they must develop human relations skillsas well as the scientific management methods of Taylorand the other classical theorists.MANAGERIAL TEMPERAMENTThe behavioral school does not end with Mayo. DouglasMcGregor summarized certain assumptions about traditional,or work-centered, theory of management underthe heading Theory X. McGregor’s TheoryXassumptionis summarized in the following four statements8:1. Work, if not downright distasteful, is an oneroustask that must be performed in order to survive.2. The average human being has an inherent dislikeof work and will avoid it if he can.3. Because of the human characteristic to dislikework, most people must be coerced, directed,controlled, or threatened with punishment toget them to put forth adequate effort toward theachievement of organizational objectives.4. The average human being prefers to be directed,wishes to avoid responsibility, and has relativelylittle ambition, and wants security above all.∗Simply stated, Theory X indicates that there is nointrinsic satisfaction in work, that human beings avoidit as much as possible, that positive direction is neededto achieve organizational goals, and that workers possesslittle ambition or originality.McGregor also presented Theory Y, which is theopposite of Theory X. His six assumptions for Theory Yare as follows9:1. The expenditure of physical and mental effortin work is as normal as play or rest. The averagehuman being does not inherently dislikework. Depending upon controllable conditions,work may be a source of satisfactionand will be voluntarily performed.2. External control and the threat of punishmentare not the only means for bringing about efforttoward organizational objectives. Man will exerciseself-direction and self-control in the service ofobjectives to which he is committed.3. Commitment to objectives is a function of theawards associated with their achievements. Themost significant aspects of such work (e.g.,the satisfaction of ego and self-actualizationneeds) can be direct products of effort directedtoward organizational objectives.4. The average human learns under proper conditionsnot only to accept but even to seek responsibility.Avoidance of responsibility, lack of ambition,and emphasis on security are general consequencesof experience, not inherent human characteristics.5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degreeof imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in thesolution of organizational problems is widely, notnarrowly, distributed in the population.6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life,the intellectual potentialities of the averagehuman beings are only partially utilized.An important point is that the opposite ways ofthinking, as reflected in McGregor’s Theory X andTheory Y, are what are actually conveyed by managers totheir employees through everyday communication andattitudes.

SATISFIERS AND DISSATISFIERSAnother leading theorist in the behavioral school wasFrederick Herzberg. Herzberg and his associates atthe Psychological Service of Pittsburgh10 found thatexperiences that create positive attitudes toward workcome from the job itself and function as satisfiers ormotivators. In other words, satisfiers are created by thechallenge and intrigue of the job itself.A second set of factors related to productivity on thejob are conditions outside of the job itself. Things such aspay, working conditions, company policy, and the qualityof supervision are all a part of the working environmentbut are outside of the task of the job itself. When thissecond set of factors is inadequate, that is, when youbelieve that these conditions are not up to par, theyfunction as dissatisfiers, or demotivators. When thesefactors are adequate, however, they do not necessarilymotivate employees for a lasting period of time but maydo so only for a short time.Stated another way, Herzberg argued that the presenceof satisfiers tends to motivate people toward greatereffort and improved performance. The absence of dissatisfiershas no long-lasting effect on positive motivation;however, the presence of dissatisfiers has a tendency todemotivate employees.PARTICIPATIVE MANAGEMENTRensis Likert,11 another leading behaviorist, introducedthe term participative management, which is characterizedby worker participation in discussions regardingdecisions that ultimately affect the worker.Participation occurs when management allows hourlyworkers to discuss their own observances and ideas withdepartment managers. (Such techniques have been seenas being one of the greatest motivators toward qualityperformance in a housekeeping operation.) More aboutthis technique will be said when we discuss employeemorale and motivation. Theory Z,12 the highly vauntedJapanese management model, is heavily based on thisparticipative management model.THE MANAGERIAL GRIDBlake and colleagues13 presented a revolutionary ideaconcerning the methods that underlie the thinking processinvolved in decision making. They found that a managerialgrid could be established, whereby a maximum orminimum concern for production could be equated witha maximum or minimum concern for people. The managerialgrid attempts to define the various ways in whichpeople think through decisions. The way people think orfeel can have a great influence on the quality of commitmentfrom a group decision, especially when it comes toresolving conflicts. Blake and Mouton held that the bestmanagers have both a high concern for production anda high concern for people in the organization.One of the most recent attempts at group involvementin decision making has come out of a major concern forthe loss of U.S. prestige in its own automobile market.Specifically, Japanesemanagers and workers have coinedthe term quality circle, which is a way of explaining totalworker involvement in the processes as well as in the managementdecisions about production and quality that willultimately affect worker welfare. Quality circles are nowundergoing heavy scrutiny in the United States and arebeing used to help rekindle automobile production.SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIPSituational leadership,14 or the contingency approach,15to management asserts that there is no one universallyaccepted approach to a management problem. Itmaintains that different problems require differentsolutions. This approach perhaps best reflects thecomplex nature of management in the organizationalsetting. Adherents to this approach agree that there isno ‘‘one best’’ way to manage; flexibility is the key tosuccessful management. The works of Fred Fiedler,16Victor Vroom,17 and Ken Blanchard and Paul Hersey18have contributed to this model.

SO WHAT DO MANAGERS DO?Ask a manager that question and youwill probably receivea hesitant reply, leading to responses such as ‘‘What do Ido?’’ or ‘‘That’s hard to say,’’ or ‘‘I’m responsible for alot of things,’’ or ‘‘I see that things run smoothly,’’ noneof which actually answer the question asked. After manyyears of researching the diaries of senior and middlemanagers in business, extended observation of streetgang leaders, U.S. presidents, hospital administrators,forepersons, and chief executives, Mintzberg19 was ableto codify managerial behavior, as follows:1. Managers’ jobs are remarkably alike. Thework of foremen, presidents, governmentadministrators, and other managers can bedescribed in terms of ten basic roles and sixsets of working characteristics.2. The differences that do exist in managers’work can be described largely in terms ofthe common roles and characteristics—suchas muted or highlighted characteristics andspecial attention to certain roles.3. As commonly thought, much of the manager’swork is challenging and nonprogrammed. Butevery manager has his or her share of regular,ordinary duties to perform, particularly in movinginformation and maintaining a status system.Furthermore, the common practice of categorizingas nonmanagerial some of the specifictasks many managers perform (like dealing withcustomers, negotiating contracts) appears to bearbitrary. Almost all of the activities managersengage in—even when ostensibly part of the regularoperations of their organization—ultimatelyrelate to back to their role as manager.4. Managers are both generalists and specialists. Intheir own organizations they are generalists—thefocal point in the general flow of informationand in the handling of general disturbances.But as managers, they are specialists. The jobof managing involves specific roles and skills.Unfortunately, we know little about these skillsand, as a result, our management schools have sofar done little to teach them systematically.5. Much of the manager’s power derives fromhis or her information. With access to manysources of information, some of them opento no one else in the organizational unit, themanager develops a database that enables himor her to make more effective decisions than theemployees make. Unfortunately, the managerreceives much information verbally and, lackingeffective means to disseminate it to others, hasdifficulty delegating tasks for decision making.Hence, the manager must take full charge ofthe organization’s strategy-making system.6. The prime occupational hazard of the manager issuperficiality. Because of the open-ended natureof this job, and because of the responsibility forinformation processing and strategy making, themanager is induced to take on a heavy workloadand to do much of it superficially. Hence,the manager’s work pace is unrelenting, andthe work activities are characterized by brevity,variety, and fragmentation. The job of managingdoes not develop reflective planners; rather,it breeds adaptive information manipulatorswho prefer a stimulus-response milieu.7. There is no science in managerial work. Managerswork essentially as they always have—with verbalinformation and intuitive (nonexplicit) processes.The management scientist has had almost noinfluence on how the manager works.8. The manager is in kind of a loop. The pressuresof the job force the manager to adoptwork characteristics (fragmentation of activityand emphasis on verbal communication,among others) that make it difficult to receivehelp from the management scientist and thatlead to superficiality in his or her work. Thisin effect leads to more pronounced workcharacteristics and increased work pressures.As the problems facing large organizationsbecome more complex, senior managers willface even greater work pressures.9. The management scientist can help to breakthis loop by providing significant help for themanager in information processing and strategymaking, provided he or she can betterunderstand the manager’s work and can gainaccess to the manager’s verbal database.10. Managerial work is enormously complex, farmore so than a reading of the traditional literaturewould suggest. There is a need to studyit systematically and to avoid the temptation toseek simple prescriptions for its difficulties.Perhaps managers are not readily adept at answeringthe question about what they do because they are toomindful of what they are doing when they are actuallyperforming their jobs. This writer also recalls once beingasked, ‘‘What do you do?’’ I was stumped by the question,until many years later, when I discovered that a managerperforms more than just the sequential functions. Thereare also those continuous functions—analyzing problems,making decisions, and communicating—as noted in thenext section.

Administrative TheoryConsidered by many to be the father of administrativetheory,Henri Fayol2 (1841–1925) was a French engineerwho became the managing director of a miningcompany. Fayol sought to apply scientific principles tothe management of the entire organization. His mostfamous work, Administratim Industrielle et General (Generaland Industrial Management), first published in 1916 andlater in English in 1929, is considered by many to be aclassic in management theory.Fayol asserted that the process of management wascharacterized by the following five functions:1. Planning—the specification of goals and themeans to accomplish those goals by the company2. Organizing—the way in which organizational structureis established and how authority and responsibilityare given to managers, a task known as delegation3. Commanding—how managers direct their employees4. Coordinating—activities designed to create arelationship among all of the organization’sefforts to accomplish a common goal5. Controlling—how managers evaluate performancewithin the organization in relationship to theplans and goals of that organization3Fayol is also famous for his Fourteen Principles ofManagement and his belief that administrative skillscould be taught in a classroom setting.Scientific ManagementFayol’s counterpart in the management of work wasFrederick W. Taylor4 (1856–1915), the father of scientificmanagement. Taylor was an intense (some wouldsay obsessive) individual who was committed to applyingthe scientific method to the work setting. In 1912, Taylorgave his own definition of scientific management toa committee in the U.S. House of Representatives, bystating what scientific management was not:Scientific Management is not any efficiency device, nor adevice of any kind for securing efficiency; nor is it anybranch or group of efficiency devices. It is not a new systemof figuring cost; it is not a new scheme of paying men; it isnot a piecework system; it is not a bonus system, nor is itholding a stop watch on a man and writing down thingsabout him. It is not time study, it is not motion study noran analysis of the movements of men.Although Taylor’s definition of scientific managementcontinued at length in a similar vein, he did notargue against using the aforementioned tools. His pointwas that scientific management was truly a mental revolution,whereby the scientific method was the sole basis forobtaining information from which to derive facts, formconclusions, make recommendations, and take action.Taylor’s contribution was a basis for understanding howto administer a project and the people involved.In his Principles of Scientific Management, publishedin 1911, he outlined four principles that constitutescientific management:1. Develop a science for each element of a man’swork, which replaces the old rule-of-thumbmethod.2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, anddevelop the workman, whereas in the past he chosehis own work and trained himself as best he could.3. Heartily cooperate with the men so as to ensureall of the work being done is in accordancewith the principles of the science which hasbeen developed.4. There is an almost equal division of the work andthe responsibilities between the managementand the workmen, while in the past almost allof the work and the greater part of the responsibilitywere thrown upon the men.Taylor also pointed out that the mental revolutionhad to take place in the workers’ as well as the managers’minds.The School of Management ScienceAn outgrowth of ‘‘Taylorism’’ is the school of managementscience, or, as it is alternatively known, operationsresearch. Management science is defined as the applicationof the scientific method to the analysis and solutionof managerial decision problems. The application ofmathematical models to executive decision making grewout of the joint U.S. and British efforts during WorldWar II to use such models in military decision making atboth the strategic and the tactical levels.

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