Design & Development

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Submetering refers to the function of using additional meters, other than the main meters at the boundary of the building. The purpose of submetering is to identify where utilities are used. Without submetering, there can be no valid basis for operational control and cost allocation. Likewise, there can be no way to verify efficiencies and quantify savings.

Layout and design

Foodservice facilities are unique in that the design of the ‘factory’ is part of the product. Guests enjoy the physical elements of their dining experience as well as the food and service they receive, while the part of the design that they don’t see is integral to the successful execution of their requests. For this reason, special care must be taken in creating the foodservice environment so that it balances the aesthetic experience with efficiency and efficacy.

Guest room floor configurations

Guest room floor configurations of a hotel will vary depending on its location, attractive view, and orientation. It is important to plan guest room floor configurations to determine an efficient floor plan for hotel guest rooms. Three common guest room floor configurations are: (1) slab configurations, (2) tower configurations, and (3) atrium configurations. In slab configurations, a single loaded slab, where guest rooms are laid out on single side of a central corridor, is suitable for narrow sites or for taking advantage of views.

Furniture, fixtures and equipment

Hotels and restaurants are furniture and equipment intensive forms of commercial real estate. Furniture, fixtures and equipment (FF&E) selection is generally coordinated with the theme and desired level of a hospitality property. The furniture and equipment component falls between 10% and 20% of the total project cost. Controlling costs related to FF&E require careful attention to planned property design characteristics and preparation of detailed procurement specifications.

Building components

Major building components include items such as foundations (located under or at ground level), structural framing (usually steel but can be wood in smaller structures), or bearing walls (often poured concrete or concrete block but sometimes wood as well) providing the above ground physical support for the structure, curtain walls or other types of exterior facade or fenestration (glazing) (providing a weatherproof exterior for the building), the roof (consisting of a roof deck and weatherproof covering), interior walls (often with a steel or wood framing covered with drywall), and various

Building codes

Building codes specify construction methods and materials to protect the safety and welfare of people. Three major model building codes existed in the United States prior to 1994. These were the National Building Code (NBC), developed by the Building Official and Code Administrators International (BOCA), the Southern Building Code (SBC) developed by the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) and the Uniform Building Code (UBC) published by the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO).      

Architectural plans

Architectural plans are drawings developed by architects, engineers, or consultants to provide instructions for contractors and trades personnel. They may also be used to determine the amount of construction materials needed and to evaluate the travel patterns of building inhabitants. There are several types of architectural plans.


Organizations may cooperate with other organizations in pursuit of their objectives. The term 'alliance' is an umbrella term for a wide range of cooperative arrangements that can encapsulate suppliers, buyers, and competitors. As such, it covers many collaborative organizational forms including franchising, management contracts, joint ventures, marketing, and purchasing consortia. Gulati (1998) defines strategic alliances as '.voluntary arrangements between firms involving exchange, sharing, or codevelopment of products, technologies, or services.' (Gulati, 1998, p.