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Apprenticeship involves combining practical work with structured training leading to nationally recognized qualifications. Hospitality apprentices can learn in fields such as Front Office, Housekeeping, Food and Beverage, or Cookery.


A method of dispute settlement in which an independent third party (e.g. industrial or labor tribunal) considers the arguments of both sides in a dispute and then makes a decision that is legally binding on the parties. "The difference between arbitration and other forms of dispute settlement such as mediation or concilition (where an arbitrator attempts to find a compromise) is that in arbitration decisions are legally binding.'' Some commentators advocate arbitration as a safety valve to avoid lengthy disputes.

Architectural plans

Architectural plans are drawings developed by architects, engineers, or consultants to provide instructions for contractors and trades personnel. They may also be used to determine the amount of construction materials needed and to evaluate the travel patterns of building inhabitants. There are several types of architectural plans.

ARDA international foundation

The American Resort Development Association (ARDA) was founded in 1969 to represent the interests of the resort industry in the USA. Today, with almost 1000 corporate members, ARDA is recognized internationally as the foremost organization promoting the resort development and vacation ownership industry.      

ARDA-Resort owners coalition

ARDA ROC is one of the American Resort Development Association's (ARDA) most successful and influential programs that brings together opposite sides of the timeshare industry, the developer and the consumer, to work together in achieving benefits for everyone. It should be understood that the ARDA is a national association in the USA that serves as the vacation ownership industry's sole lobbying, educational, and information source.

Asset management

Although not unique to the hospitality industry, asset management has become an important consideration for owners of hotels due to the unique combination of an operating business within a real estate investment found in hotel investments. As a result, and different from asset management in other industries, hotel asset management generally combines a strategic, real estate function with an operational oversight function.      

Association market

By definition, associations are people or groups of people who find strength in numbers while sharing common interests of industries, professions, charities, hobbies, or philanthropic action (American Society of Association Executives, 2003a). Associations are a subset of a type or organizations typically referred to as 'nonprofits.' Outside the USA, nonprofits are often called nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) or civil society organizations. Like the greater classification of nonprofits, associations may in fact charge fees, generate revenue, and generate a profit.


The term 'atmospherics' refers to the study of the physical environment where some activity occurs. The physical environment is defined as the material surroundings of a place. For example, a physical environment may be the lobby of a hotel or the swimming pool/spa area of a property. Atmospherics studies the effect that the physical environment has on people's behaviors. Early research in the field of environmental psychology focused on how the physical environment affected behavior in workplace, educational, and penal institutional/correctional settings.