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A bartender’s most obvious outward function is to take and prepare drink orders from customers at a bar or from the wait staff who have taken orders from customers. To do this, the bartender must be familiar with dozens of cocktail recipes and names or create drinks to a customer’s specifications. Often drink names are regional, so an awareness of the variability of drink names is desirable. The bartender then collects the money, makes change, and keeps track of tips (particularly when tips are distributed among bartenders, wait staff, and other restaurant employees).

Basic elements of cost

Most business accounting systems classify costs in groupings of 'material', 'labor', and 'expenses' that relate to the resources consumed. For example, in a restaurant operation, basic cost elements would typically include food and beverages (material), wages, salaries and over time (labor), cleaning supplies, energy, insurance, advertising, and depreciation (expenses). With respect to accommodation activities of a hotel we would also see other expenses such as guest supplies, laundry, travel agents' commission, etc.

Beliefs and attitudes

A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about an object or phenomenon (Kotler, Bowen, & Makens, 1999). The term 'attitude' refers to an individual's preference, inclination, views, or feelings toward some phenomenon or object (Churchill, 1995). Thus, attitudes and beliefs are part of a consumer's psychological makeup. Consumers' attitudes are learned, are characterized by their consistency and responsiveness (Hanna & Wozniak, 2001), and can be very difficult to change (Kotler et al., 1999).      


Benchmarking is the comparing and measuring of a hospitality firm’s business processes against the best practices of those processes by any organization in any industry in the entire world. The objective of benchmarking is to accelerate organizational learning in order to achieve a break through in performance. To engage in this approach to self-improvement, a firm must first identify its own value adding activities or processes that create its value chain (Hammer & Champy, 1994). Those activities are then compared with the best performing firms with similar value sets.

Benchmarking in property management

Originally, a benchmark was a mark in a wall used as a point of reference against which other measurements could be compared, and today the computer industry still uses the term bench marking to mean the comparison of the speed or other attribute of various computer systems or components against a nominal standard. In the hospitality and other industries, however, benchmarking does not refer to standards, but rather to a specific process formalized by Robert Camp at the Xerox Company in the 1970s, namely 'the search for industry best practice that leads to superior performance'.

Benchmarking performance

Historically, operating performance in hospitality organizations consisted primarily of internal comparisons within individual companies based on comparisons among individual properties, budgets, and prior period performance. In the hotel industry, the continued development of the Uniform System of Accounts for the Lodging Industry, first published in the 1920s and now in its 10th edition, has provided guidance to the hotel industry for standardized financial classification and reporting.

Biennial timeshare

A biennial timeshare gives the purchaser the use of a fixed week every other year. The primary reason that developers started to offer a timeshare in an every other year format was to meet certain consumers' financial needs that normally could not afford an annual timeshare. Typically, the biennial owner is classified as an 'odd' or an 'even' owner. If an owner is not going to use the week that his/her own, or if the owner wants to use it to exchange elsewhere, the owner can enter his/her week into the exchange company's reservation system.


Bluetooth is a world wide standard in short range radio communication technology that enables computers, printers, mobile telephones, bar code scanners, digital cameras, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) and other electronic devices to be connected without wires, cables or infrared to each other or to the Internet.      


A booth is one or more standard units of exhibit space. In Europe, a booth is known as a stand. In the United States, a standard unit is generally known to be a 10 foot × 10 foot space (one standard booth unit, equaling 100 net square feet. This would be 3 m by 3 m in metric). A booth is a specific area assigned by management to an exhibitor under contractual agreement.