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Wrongful dismissal

Wrongful dismissal (discharge or termination) includes ‘unfair’ and ‘unlawful’ dismissal. Unfair dismissal is the termination of employment deemed to be ‘harsh, unjust or unreasonable’ using a number of criteria expressed as questions. For example, was there a valid reason for the termination, was the employee notified, were opportunities granted for employee responses to the reason and was adequate warning was given to employee to improve performance?


Xeriscape was derived from the Greek word ‘xeros’, meaning ‘dry’ and ‘landscape’. Xeriscape means gardening with less than average water. Xeriscape is landscape consisting primarily of native, drought resistant species, less than average turf and other practices that require little or no maintenance, watering, or fertilization.

Yield management

YM is a management tool or technique that is currently being utilized by an increasing number of group and independently owned hotels in order to maximize the effective use of their available capacity and ensure financial success. YM is not an entirely new innovation and most hoteliers practice some form of YM such as the adjusting of room rates to temper fluctuations between peak and off peak seasons, mid week and weekend rates. This chapter, therefore, examines the use and application of YM in the hotel industry and hopes to demonstrate its ability to effectively maximize revenue and profit generation in this highly competitive and capital intensive industry.

Yield statistic

The yield statistic is the ratio of actual revenue to potential revenue. Actual revenue is the revenue generated by the number of rooms sold. Potential revenue is the amount of money that would be received if all rooms were sold at their rack rates. Potential revenue can be determined in more than one way. Some hotels calculate their potential revenue as the amount that would be earned if all rooms were sold at the double occupancy rate. Other properties calculate their potential revenue by taking into account the percentage mix of rooms normally sold at both single and double occupancy.

Zero-based budget

Zero based budgeting is used colloquially to mean the preparation of a budget from a nil base usually where little or no historical sales or cost information is available for instance, for a new project or product. It is constructed by considering first volumes and average spends and then the costs associated with these (variable costs). Finally, fixed costs are added to the budget.
The advantages and disadvantages of a zero based approach to budgeting are:

Zoning codes

The objective of zoning codes is to promote the safety, health, and general welfare of citizens. The earliest zoning ordinance on record in the USA was enacted in 1913 in New York City to regulate the height, size, and layout of buildings. The motion made by the president of Manhattan Borough stressed the need to limit building heights to stop the congested living and street conditions. In 1916, a more comprehensive ordinance was adopted to control the density and uses of land. During the 1920s, zoning codes were enacted in all regions of the nation.