Human Resource

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Wrongful dismissal

Wrongful dismissal (discharge or termination) includes ‘unfair’ and ‘unlawful’ dismissal. Unfair dismissal is the termination of employment deemed to be ‘harsh, unjust or unreasonable’ using a number of criteria expressed as questions. For example, was there a valid reason for the termination, was the employee notified, were opportunities granted for employee responses to the reason and was adequate warning was given to employee to improve performance?

Work orientation

The concept of work orientation refers to individuals’ attitudes towards work. It emphasizes how people construe their roles and work environments. According to Burke and Deszca (1988, p. 646), work orientation draws on ‘‘the meaning of work for individuals; it includes goals, values, wants and outlooks, career related aspirations and desired rewards’’. Goldthorpe, Lockwood, Bechhofer and Platt (1968) identified three main types of orientation to work:


Poor performing employees need to be managed carefully and fairly through separate performance appraisals with formal and documented processes. In many cases employers will also use verbal and written ‘warnings’ in an attempt to improve employee performance.

Turnover culture

Staff turnover is generally acknowledged as particularly high within the hospitality industry. Indeed, some fast food chains have annual turn over rates in excess of 200%. Turnover culture tends to be correlated with poor communication within organizations and more autocratic styles of management. Turnover culture is a product of a number of factors, including the seasonality of employment, the limited career structure in smaller establishments, the semi or unskilled nature of some jobs and finally, the percentage of employees from secondary labor markets.


Turnover occurs when an employee leaves his or her organization either voluntarily or involuntarily. Operationally, turnover is often expressed as a percentage either within a hospitality organizations department or the organization as a whole, or sometimes both. Turnover, in percentage and departmental/organizational terms may differ between hospitality organizations depending on natural business seasons, organizations’ location, external forces, e.g., international or domestic and staff themselves. Turnover rate is typically expressed as an annualized percentage.

Transferable skills

Transferable skills are skills acquired during virtually any activity in life jobs, subjects/ modules taken during education, projects, parenting, hobbies, and sports skills that are transferable and applicable to other careers and life experiences. Transferable skills are the foundation upon which one can build additional, more complex skills as job opportunities and life in general unfold. Developing and refining them is a lifelong process.


Training can be identified as activities that ‘help an individual acquire competence in a specific task, process or role’ (Harrison, 2002; p. 5).Within the hospitality industry training focus is often on the development of specific skills related to behavior and performance that will ultimately have an impact on guest satisfaction. In developing training to address these areas organizations will use a process often referred to as the training cycle. This is a continuous process involving the following activities:

Trade union

Refers to an organization of employees formed to engage in collective action and membership is usually based on a particular industry or occupational group. The goals of trade unions are usually to enable their members to purse their industrial interests, but some unions may also seek political and social goals. Unions as ‘ex parte’ agents on behalf of their members generally have recognition under most industrial legislative, particularly in collective bar gaining, for pursuing wage claims and grievance handling with employers.


Stewart (1996 p. 171), defines self development as individuals improving their knowledge, skills, and abilities through their own self directed efforts. According to Stewart, there are three critical questions that must be answered in the self development process: 1) Where am I now? 2) Where do I want to be? and 3) How will I monitor progress? In the process of answering these three questions, the ability to engage in self analysis including objectivity of one’s own strengths and weaknesses is of great importance.

Role playing and simulations

Role playing is an interactive training technique in which participants experience real or exaggerated workplace situations involving the reenactment of certain parts or roles (Cannon & Gustafson, 2002, p. 169). This training technique is particularly effective for practicing and developing interpersonal skills such as hospitality employees appropriately responding to guest requests or complaints. In that employees assume the roles of guests, as well as workers, this technique helps in building empathy toward guest needs and perceptions.