Technology & Engineering

Twitter icon
Facebook icon
Google icon
LinkedIn icon


Xeriscape was derived from the Greek word ‘xeros’, meaning ‘dry’ and ‘landscape’. Xeriscape means gardening with less than average water. Xeriscape is landscape consisting primarily of native, drought resistant species, less than average turf and other practices that require little or no maintenance, watering, or fertilization.

Wireless application protocol

The WAP Forum was founded in 1997 on the initiative of Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola and to develop a uniform and open standard for the transmission of wireless information and telephone services to mobile devices. The goal was to by pass transmission bottlenecks through a simplified transmission language. The content is represented in WML (Wireless Markup Language) for which a WAP capable micro browser is needed. Cut down Internet sites thus can be displayed on WAP browsers on mobile phones, organizers, palmtops or pagers with a standard speed of 9.6 kbit/s.


Wireless is a term used to describe telecommunications in which electromagnetic waves (as opposed to wire) carry a signal. Early wireless transmitters used radiotelegraphy to transmit Morse code and later voice. Information Communication Technology (ICT) developments have proliferated the use of wireless applications and devices, including: cellular phones and pagers, global positioning system, cordless computer peripherals and telephones, home remote control and monitor systems.

Wall reader

Wall reader is an important part of smart card system. Just hold a small fob or card near the reader, from 4" to 24" depending on the model, and an electric strike or magnetic lock opens. The reader can be mounted inside or behind the wall in areas where vandalism is a problem. Each reader has a unique identification number. Some of the readers have a keypad built in to use for programming.

Virtual reality

Virtual reality is a computer simulation that offers the user the opportunity to experience different kinds of pre produced programs, as if in real time (Williams & Hobson, 1995). It enables users to enjoy computer generated environments that offer three dimensional perspectives through the use of sound, sight, and touch technology. Using virtual reality, it is possible to simulate the physical environment of almost any tourism destinations or hospitality facility. Virtual reality enables people who have the equipment to experience artificial tourism products and services at low cost.

Vertical transportation

There are many ways of moving people and equipment vertically through amultistory building. The most common method is using the stairs. Most modern commercial buildings have one or more pieces of equipment that allow them to move people and objects mechanically. This equipment falls into the general category of vertical transportation. Vertical transportation systems that are most commonly found in the hospitality buildings include elevators, escalators, and dumbwaiters.

Ventilation system

Ventilation contributes to human comfort. Air inside an occupied building can become stale and stagnant. In hotel, activities such as smoking and cooking tend to magnify this problem. Consequently, the air in the building needs either to be filtered or to be replaced with fresh outside air. The replacement of inside air with air from the outside will raise heating and cooling costs because this outside air must be brought to the inside air temperature; thus a good air filtration system may be a cost effective investment.

Telephone systems

Telephone systems are used to link people together within an organization, and to the outside world. Most hotels provide telephones in guest rooms, which allow guests to ring reception or other numbers within or outside the hotel. The system usually has a Private Automated Branch Exchange (PABX) where calls are received, perhaps by a receptionist, and then transferred to the appropriate person within the organization. Many systems allow Direct Dial In (DDI) so that calls can be made direct to the correct extension without being processed by the receptionist.


TCP and IP are protocols governing the handling and the formatting of data in an electronic communications system; they are the main proto cols used on the Internet. The messages (files) exchanged over the network are divided into small units (called packets) by TCP, while IP takes care of managing the actual delivery of the data. The routing needed to accomplish this is completely transparent to the user. All is needed in order to access another system is an ‘Internet address’ (called IP address), a 32 bit number, normally written as four decimal numbers.


Software is the general collective term used to describe the methods of using and controlling computers; it consists of programs, procedures, and documentation. The four main categories are programming software, system software, applications software, and network software. Programming software such as compilers and interpreters assists programmers in writing programs. System software such as windowing systems and diagnostic tools, enables end users to run the hardware and computer system.